401013 Promoting Mental Health And Wellbeing

Question:

Australia is concerned about suicide and depression.

a) Analyse and describe the rates of depression and suicide in Australia.

Make sure you separate your efforts to address depression and suicide.

b. Using relevant literature, identify one community group at risk for suicide and one that is at risk.

Your answer should demonstrate why you believe these groups are at risk.

Use current literature and one of your scenarios A orB to answer these questions:

Examine 2 factors that may have contributed towards the client’s mental health risks and concerns.

Discussions from multiple perspectives within a professional team of health care professionals can lead to deep discussions about ethical and legal concerns in health care.

The case study highlights areas of potential harm to oneself and others.

You can use literature and the case to discuss the ethical principles and aspects of beneficence, non-maleficence, and aspects of Mental Health Act 2007 that are relevant to the areas at risk.

Discuss the high-priority mental health risk identified in the case study. Provide two appropriate interventions. Refer to relevant literature to explain the reasoning and potential impact on the client of both interventions.

You should only refer your client to another health provider or service.

In the case study, identify a mental problem/ concern or need and suggest two possible interventions.

Referring to the relevant literature, explain the reasoning and the possible impact on the client of both interventions.

You should not refer to any other service or to settings to acG health provider as these are not suitable interventions for your work.

You are a nurse at an Accident and Emergency department.

Jonathon was taken to the hospital by an ambulance after his father noticed that he was semi-conscious at home.

An examination by doctors revealed that Jonathon had consumed an excess of over-the counter medication.

Jonathon is now alert and willing to talk with you.

The following information is gleaned from your discussions with Jonathon.

Jonathon is a 19-year-old man.

He lives with Dennis, his father, and Maria, his younger sister. Maria is 16.

Jonathon shared that he had a very positive relationship to his father during their conversations.

Jonathon has felt closer to his father since the death of his mother eleven months back.

His mother was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 12 months prior to her death.

Jonathon stated that his dad has worked extra hours since her death to help pay the family’s bills.

His father leaves his house at 6-30 am and does not return to the home until 7-30 pm most week days.

His dad also works on weekends.

Jonathon is enrolled on an electrical training course in Technical and Further Education. He is expected to work four days a semaine and to be at TAFE once a week.

According to Jonathon, he has not submitted his TAFE assessment for the last two months. He has felt tired and with a decreased energy level for about three to four weeks.

Jonathon has called in sick at work more than once per week over the past month.

He is growing more anxious about the possibility of being asked to leave his training program because he has not submitted his assessments and has been less present at work.

Jonathon is currently in a one-year relationship with Leah (20 year old female).

Both were TAFE students when they met.

Jonathan claims that Leah has been feeling emotionally distant from Jonathon for the last month.

He said that he cancelled their scheduled dates and hasn’t been answering her phones.

Jonathon and Leah reconnected in a local pub the night before the overdose.

They had an argument about their relationship status.

Jonathon walked home and stopped by the bottle shop to get more beer.

While at home alone, he drank at least six bottles extra-strong beer.

He said he felt more anxious and disoriented at home.

He overdosed on medications found in his kitchen cupboard, with the intent of killing himself.

He’s not sure of the actual medication and how many tablets he consumed.

He claims that he has had ruminating thoughts about suicide since the death of his mum.

He had thoughts of going to work in the early morning to kill himself with the electrical equipment.

His mum’s first anniversary is fast approaching, and he began to think about suicide.

He misses her so very much.

Because his dad has been working, he hasn’t felt able talk to his dad about his mother.

He feels he’s let his mom down as he wasn’t able to cope after her death.

He feels like a failure due to his reduced attendance at work and the non-submission of his assessment.

Since his girlfriend started talking about ending their relationship, he has felt overwhelmed the past month.

He states that he wants his life to end.

Answer:

Australia is concerned about suicide and depression.

Surveys in Australia have shown that one out of five people with common mental disorders is likely to be affected by it. This accounts for 20%.

A study of adults between 16 and 85 years found that 6 percent of people are at high risk of developing depression-like affective disorder.

Additional major depressive disorders are also common in children and teens aged 4-17 years. The incidence rate was 3%, up from 2.1% to 3.2%.

These data show that depression is a key driver of both disability, morbidity, and co-morbid disorders in the population (Mhsa.aihw.gov.au 2017, 2017).

The year 2015 saw suicide being the 13th leading cause for death in Australia. This was further confirmed by a report that showed an increase in the number of deaths compared to past data.

The standard suicide rate was 12.6 per 100,000 in 2015 according to data.

Further data showed that Australia’s collective suicide rate was 73% in 2015, with Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria being the most populous.

A deeper investigation of the matter revealed that suicide was 33.9% for people aged 15-24 and 27.7% for those 25-34.

According to records, suicide was the leading cause for death in those aged between 15-44 and children between 5-17. It was also the leading cause in deaths in those aged between 45-54.

The risk of intentional self-harm in men was approximately three times higher than the risk for women (Abs.gov.au 2017).

A lot of research was done to determine the extent of depression among Australians. This brought to light the extremely dangerous community of Aboriginals/Torres Strait Islanders, who due to their culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are at high risk of experiencing depressive symptoms.

The community is at risk of developing depression later in life due to trauma suffered as a young person.

Social exclusion and racism are also factors that can limit your social and emotional wellbeing.

They are also more likely to feel depressed if they experience excessive stress because of discriminatory treatment in healthcare provision and other resources.

These individuals were also at high risk for developing depression after being placed in public housing.

The risk of suicide in Australia is high among young adults, who make up a large portion of the population.

Through an assessment of the effects of involuntary job termination on suicide and attempted murder in young adults, the study has assessed the risk of suicide in vulnerable youth.

After careful analysis and adjustments to variables such as socioeconomic status, marital status, and diagnosis entailing an anxiety or affective disorder, the findings of this study highlighted important issues.

It showed that young adults between the ages of 18 and 34 years had a higher chance of suicide or attempted suicide due to involuntary job loss (Milner, 2014).

The client’s mental health and risks may have been caused by a multitude of factors.

Jonathan, a 19-year-old boy, tried to end the rest of his life due to an overdose on over-the-counter medications.

However, it was discovered that these actions are caused by deep-rooted issues after extensive discussions with the client.

This connection may lead to two key factors.

First, his mother’s sudden death 11 months back has had a profound impact on his life. He was unable cope and misses her very much.

Keyes and colleagues (2014) showed that sudden death of a family member is associated with an increased risk of developing mental disorders.

Jonathan experienced this and was unable to cope with sudden loss. He attempted suicide.

He also experienced emotional disconnection from his father during the period after his mother’s passing. His father had active commitments at work, which meant that he didn’t have the time to talk to him.

His personal problems in relationships and mental turmoil led to his depression.

He couldn’t express his anger and emotions, and was not ready to share his worries with his family members and loved ones.

Aside from the sudden loss of his mother, distance with his father might have created a void which was not immediately fixable and could have had adverse effects on his mental health.

Research shows that family relationships can be supportive and help prevent the development of anxiety and depression, especially in young people who are more vulnerable. It also increases youth’s resilience to deal with mental health issues (Reivich und al. 2013, 2013).

Jonathan’s mother died, and Jonathan could have experienced depressive symptoms that eventually led to suicidal tendencies.

Jonathan’s case shows that there are risks to his survival.

The case study revealed that Jonathan was affected by the death of his mother prematurely. This reflected in his work performance.

He was also stressed by his lack of contact with his father as a result of his work load.

His decreased attendance at work and non-submission to allotted assignments for his electrical training course at Technical and Further Education Institution (TAFE) further demotivated him and increased the likelihood of developing depression symptoms and other mental disorders.

In order to reduce the risk factors that are associated with his condition, you must adhere to certain ethical principles.

In this instance, interventions must adhere to bioethics principles like beneficence or non-malfeasance.

By conforming to beneficence, healthcare professionals must act in client’s best interests.

For positive outcomes, the healthcare professional must strictly adhere to ethical considerations in order to minimize the client’s concerns.

Beauchamp (2016). The welfare of the person affected must be stressed in the process.

As part of bioethical principles, it is recommended that patients are protected from any harm by following the principle of nonmalfeasance.

The delivery of healthcare services and informed choices should ensure that the patient is not inflicted with any harm. This reduces the risk of intentional harm.

Conformity to this virtue will result in optimal outcomes for the client. (Tepper 2017).

Jonathan must have both these virtues and be attended to by nurses and practitioners to ensure that Jonathan receives the best possible care with minimal risk.

Jonathan is the perfect example of how to address Jonathan’s case.

Jonathan must receive appropriate treatment and care in accordance to the Mental Health Act 2007. This will help him recover.

It is essential to provide appropriate hospital and community care facilities in addition to the necessary care.

Access to appropriate care must be done in partnership with the protection and enjoyment of civil rights.

In order to speed up recovery and reap the benefits of such engagements, it is important that all parties involved in the decision making process include them.

His family members must consent to the administration of medications or any other invasive method for assessment of his medical condition.

Due to Jonathan’s non-allegiance or diminished mental state, they will have to make decisions on his behalf.

Jonathan must have his immediate family (his father and sister) allowed to be involved in decisions to foster better care.

Careful attention to the Act’s risk areas will ensure that the client is treated with the best care.

Jonathan, according to the proceedings of the case investigation, showed high risk to commit suicide or self-harm.

Nurses may use appropriate interventions strategies to reduce this high-risk behaviour.

A psychiatric nurse must be able to develop and maintain a therapeutic relationship that is collaborative with the client. This may help the client who is at risk of suicidal tendencies.

The proper recording and documentation of patient situations will help to ensure safety and evidence-based practice.

Nursing focus, which is evidence-based in combating suicidal tendencies, will elicit positive responses (Hadlaczky und al. 2014).

The client must accept the therapeutic association with a psychiatric nurse in order to reap the therapeutic benefits of the applied interventions.

Counseling family members in order to limit the unauthorised access to lethal prescription medication might be a good intervention.

Jonathan’s father could be informed about Jonathan’s current condition and made aware of the possible risk factors that might hinder his mental health due to predisposition towards suicidal tendencies.

Jonathan’s recruitment of family members will have positive outcomes as he will spend the majority of his time with them. This will make it easier for them to evaluate changes in his immediate behavior.

The National practice standards for mental health workforce 2013 Standard 2 states working with people and families through the adoption of recovery-focused methods (Health.gov.au 2017).

This might be applicable in this specific case and indicate positive outcomes.

Jonathan might be able to see the evidence-based nursing interventions as well as the inclusion of family members as a sign that he is able to relive the suicidal burden.

One mental health problem or need that could be recognized during this case study is depression.

Interventions designed to alleviate this problem need to acknowledge and promote a positive view of oneself through the identification of strengths. They also need to be mindful of the prudent goals that can help you recover from depression.

It is important to encourage the client’s ability to express his emotions, worries, and resentments via open-ended questions.

Empathy will help the client to talk openly and share his feelings. This will aid in the recovery and combating depressive symptoms.

Being able to offer moral support and to praise his strengths will help the patient feel better and speed up recovery.

Depression, being a real illness, should not be overlooked. It is important to provide prompt support and encouragement as well as adequate attention so that the person can get the medical treatment they need.

The patient will be referred to a psychiatrist promptly to ensure the best treatment for their depressive symptoms (Fortinash & Worret (2014).

Psychotherapy can also be used to address negative self-perceptions and paraphernalia in order to treat mood disorders like depression.

The CBT approach may effectively address self-directed violence, impaired interaction with others, disturbed perceptions and low self-esteem. Psychological needs may be met and health and wellness promoted.

CBT can increase adaptive responses by triggering emotional arousal. This can then lead to subsequent processing (Greenberg 2017,).

Jonathan will likely benefit from this approach. His improved symptoms could be reflected in the quality of his relationships and in his work behavior.

The client may also be able to address depression and other symptoms that could lead to suicidal thoughts.

This CBT nursing intervention might help to correct undesirable behavior patterns.

In this instance, the appropriate interventions may include timely referral to psychiatrists through insight and prudence.

References

3303.0. – Causes Of Death, Australia 2015

Principlelism in Bioethics.

Bioethical Decision Making & Argumentation (pp.

Springer International Publishing.

Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing – Ebook.

Emotion-focused therapy for depression.

Person-Centered & Experienced Psychotherapies, 1-12.

Mental Health First Aid can be an effective public health intervention to improve knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour.

International Review of Psychiatry 26, 467-475.

2013.National practice standards for mental health workers.

In a national study, the burden of grief: unexpected death of a family member and psychiatric disorders over the course of one’s life.

American Journal of Psychiatry (171(8): 864-871.

No 8 of the Mental Health Act 2007 was published.

Prevalence, burden and impact.

Evidence from a case-control study that matched the participants. The effect of involuntary job termination on suicide attempts and suicide attempts in young adults.

Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 48(4): 333-340.

Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander psychological health.

Working together: Principles of and practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Wellbeing, 2, 25–38.

From helplessness and optimism: The role resilience plays in treating and preventing youth depression.

Handbook of resilience in children (pp.

Ethics in Clinical care.

International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics.