# BIOL 2P94 Plant Biology

## Question:

Include information about the plant, each hormone, and where it was made.

Include references to the (name, year), in your introduction.

Each statistical test requires you to provide Null hypotheses (One-way ANOVA).

To perform statistical analysis using any stats software, determine the percentage increase in height and decrease in leaf pair count between different treatment options (for each hormone).

ANOVA outputs will show the standard errors and means for each of these variables.

Make 2 bar graphs including standard error bars. Include the following: Treatment Type (x) and Increased Height of Pea Seedlings in cm (y-axis).

Write a few paragraphs outlining the trends in the graphs and visual observations that were made in the greenhouse.

Consider the significance of your data and make a decision as to whether or not you will accept each test.

Examine your results and discuss their meaning. Compare them with peer-reviewed publications.

Be sure to include appropriate references (Author and year) in your discussion.

## Answer:

Introduction

Pea (Pisumsativum), was the main plant used in this study.

This crop was studied from the time of Gregor Mendel (Bateson and William).

The pods of the plant are green, and they contain dry seeds.

These seeds are very popular as they can be used both as a source of pulses and as a vegetable.

This crop has a high nutritional value and contains vitamins A and K, carbohydrates and phosphorus.

To grow this pea crop, three hormones are required.

They are Gibberellic Acid, Indole Acetic Acid and Kinetin.

Gibberellic acid, a hormone found in plants and fungi, is known as.

This acid is essential for the growth and extension of plant cells (Iqbal Muhammad, Muhammad, and Muhammad).

Indole Acetic Acid (also known as plant hormone) is found in the tips of leaves and in the young leaves of plants.

IAA signals essential molecules that are necessary for the development and growth coordination for major components of plants (Tabatabaei and al.

Kinetin, a type cytokinin, is another type.

This hormone aids in the promotion of plant cell division (Bandivadekar, et al.

Results

ANOVA tests are required in order to test the effect of hormones Kinetin, Indole Acetic acid and Gibberellic acids on the average height of the pea seedlings.

ANOVA tests are also needed to measure the standard error of height increases in pea seedlings’ after applying the hormones Indole Acetic Acid, Kinetin, or Gibberellic.

These ANOVA tests can be performed using the following hypothesis:

Null Hypothesis H01: No difference in the mean height between different leaf-treatment hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis: The average height of plants can vary depending on the type of hormones used for leaf treatment.

The table 1 and 2 below show the ANOVA results for hypothesis H01.

Table 1: Summary of mean height increases after leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 2: ANOVA test results for the mean height increase following leaf treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

The graph in Figure 1 clearly shows that gibberellin leaf treatment results in the greatest increase in height.

Null Hypothesis H02: No difference in height between different root-treatment hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis: Plant heights can vary significantly depending on the application of different hormones to treat root problems.

Table 3 and 4 give the results of the ANOVA tests for hypothesis H02.

Table 3: Summary of mean elevation increase following root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 4: ANOVA Results for Mean Height Increase After Root Treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

Null Hypothesis H03: No difference in leaf pair growth between different types of hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis, (HA3): Significant differences exist in the average increase in leaf pairs between plants depending on how different hormones are applied to leaf treatment.

Table 5 and 6 give the results from the ANOVA test of hypothesis H03.

Table 5: Summary for the mean increase of leaf pairs following leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 6: ANOVA Results for Mean Increase in Leaf Pairs After Leaf Treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

Null Hypothesis (H04),: There is no significant change in the number and types of leaf pairs after root treatment.

Alternate Hypothesis 4 (HA4): No significant differences in the number and types of leaf pairs between plants treated with different hormones after root treatment.

Table 7 and 8 give the results of the ANOVA tests for hypothesis H04.

Table 7: Summary for the mean increase of leaf pairs after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 8: ANOVA Results for Mean Increase in Leaf Pairs After Root Treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

The figure 4 illustrates that all three hormones and water play equal roles in increasing the number leaf pairs following root treatment.

It is important to not give too much importance to any one hormone for this type treatment.

Discussion

All of the hypotheses have been tested using the ANOVA test.

The ANOVA test results are shown in tables 1 & 2.

The table 2 results of the ANOVA test for the first hypothesis, H01, are shown in tables 1 and 2.

Therefore, null hypothesis H01 is rejected.

The mean height increases do not vary with different hormones applied to leaf treatment.

As you can see from table 4, the p value for H02 is 0.058, which is greater than the level of significance (0.05 with 95 percent confidence interval).

Therefore, H02 is accepted as the null hypothesis.

The null hypothesis (H02) can be accepted. It is evident that the height increase differs depending on whether different types of hormones are used or water applied to root treatment.

As you can see from table 6, the p value for H03 is 0.000. This is less than the level 0.05 at the 95 percent confidence interval.

Therefore, null hypothesis H03 is rejected.

The mean increase in leaf pair count after the application of different hormones with water doesn’t differ depending on leaf treatment.

As you can see from table 8, the p value for H04 is 0.315, which is greater than the level of significance (0.05 with 95 percent confidence interval).

Therefore, H04 is accepted as the null hypothesis.

The null hypothesis (H04) can be accepted. It is evident that the increase in the number leaf pairs of plants following application of different types hormones with water results in significant differences.

Root treatment requires the use of both water and hormones to ensure growth.

The selection of hormones for leaf treatment is not important because different hormones don’t show any significant growth.

Method and Materials

Cairn’s greenhouse used the hormones Indole Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid as well as distilled water to apply 15-day-old pea seeds in four different lab sessions.

Both the height and number leaf pairs were recorded prior to and one week after the hormones were applied.

Refer to

“Useful Plant Auxins Made by Bacteria in Seed Tissue Culture and Pre-treatment; A Possibility for Replacement of Synthetic Auxins.”

Bateson and William Mendel.

Mendel’s principles regarding heredity.

“Gibberellic acids mediated salt tolerance in wheat plants: growth and ionic partitioning. Photosynthesis. Yield. Hormonal homeostasis.

Environmental and Experimental Botany 86 (2013) : 76-85.

Tabatabaei and Samira, et.al.

Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14.1 (2016): 0802.