Case Study Of Jessica

Question:

Discuss Jessica’s Case Study.

Answer:

Introduction

The slide shows the medical condition of Jessica, five-years-old.

Jessica was found to have asthma symptoms after she had been diagnosed.

In this paper, we will describe how Salbutamol, Prednisolone and Prednisolone work in Jessica’s bodies to fight asthma.

It will describe how Prednisolone (Salbutamol) and Prednisolone can be used to help Jessica with asthma management and treatment.

Pharmacology (Bisgaard 2013) is a branch within medicine that studies the effects of drugs on one’s body.

Every medication has its side effects. Even some of the best ones can be dangerous if they are taken in excess.

Pharmacology studies how to improve the lives of patients by developing new drugs that treat diseases.

Asthma refers to a condition that affects the path of air from the lungs.

Asthma is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the airways.

These narrow airways can cause air to not reach the lungs because they become narrower as the airways expand.

The airways become sensitive and highly allergic.

Jessica may have suffered from a combination of respiratory disease and exposure to cold infections (“National Asthma Education, Prevention Program”, 2013).

Asthma attack can lead to severe health problems for children under five years old, such as Jessica.

It can disrupt routine activities such sleep, school, and play.

Jessica will be bored and inactive at school.

Here are some signs Jessica may experience from an asthma attack.

Breathe shortness of breath at all times.

Often feeling pain in the chest.

Jessica emits a whistling sound whenever she breathes in.

Jessica also believes her or her chest is tightened and congested (“National Asthma Education, Prevention Program”, 2013).

Jessica experiences frequent, uncontrollable coughing.

Jessica suffers from the condition and is unable to interact with others because of her shortness.

Jessica is constantly coughing and has difficulty sleeping.

Jessica is suffering from a severe respiratory infection.

While there are many possible causes of asthma, Jessica is most likely to have asthma because of the lifestyle she led. Wallace, 2013.

Jessica was exposed as a child to tobacco smoke by her father. She often inhaled the smoke and developed asthma symptoms.

Other common causes may be present, including: Environmental factors like air pollution and inheriting traits from parents (Burks, et al. (2013)).

The attack by airborne disease and asthma can occur at an early age due to changes in the weather or exposure to cold air.

The Family History of Asthma.

Although there are many symptoms and signs of asthma, the most important is the difficulty in breathing.

This is the most frequent symptom for asthma patients. Jessica also experiences this condition.

Because they address this problem, the medications listed below are important.

Salbutamol Drug

Salbutamol belongs to the category of medicine that bronchodilators.

It belongs to the B2-adrenergic receptor agonists.

Salbutamol can be used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma and many other breathing problems. When inhaled, it prevents the development of asthma.

The drug acts in a specific manner in the human body (Burks, et al. 2013,).

The drug is absorbed into the lungs via the airways. It also stretches muscles located within these walls.

It makes the air passages narrower, which prevents air from flowing as freely as possible.

This defect is corrected by the salbutamol drugs. They relax the tight muscles within the walls and airways.

Jessica should always receive the drug in an isotonic form.

Jessica should consult the doctor before taking the drug.

There are several ways this medication can be used.

Each salbutamol medication is designed for a particular age group (Wallace, et al. 2013, 2013).

How severe the pain is also a factor that affects the dosage.

An aerosol inhaler can be used to counter one inhalation and two puffs.

Patients aged 12 years and older are advised to use an aerosol inhaler.

Jessica, on the other hand is a child who can only take one puff of the aerosol inhaler.

Jessica may need more wind depending on the severity of her asthma.

The patient’s age may affect how many days a day they can take.

Children aged 4 and above can have four puffs per day, just like Jessica. Adults 12 and older may need eight puffs daily.

It is recommended that you use an inhaler before starting any exercise.

People with asthma often experience difficulty breathing while participating in this activity.

Jessica should bring one puff. The adult can take up two winds to prevent shortening breath.

The nebulizer is the other salbutamol-based drug.

It is always available in milligrams (Breuer, et al. 2015).

Twelve-year-olds consume 3.0mg – 6.0mg each four times per day. Jessica should only consume 3.0mg per day.

However, another dose is available to treat the symptoms of asthma.

It is inhaled.

Jessica may take one puff while the adults have four winds.

There are many factors that determine which type of medication a patient will take.

These factors include weight and medical conditions.

Jessica should seek advice from her doctor before taking any dosage.

These side effects are not the only ones that may occur with this drug (Lambrecht, Hammad 2015).

Side effects include faster heartbeats, dizziness headaches, nervousness nausea, weakness, coughing and restlessness.

Other medical conditions can make taking the drug more challenging.

Jessica might have diabetes.

Salbutamol causes an increase in blood sugar.

Before taking any drug, parents should discuss Jessica’s condition with their doctor.

Jessica might have difficulty taking the drug if she is suffering from heart disease.

Jessica may have health issues if she has high blood pressure, or any other heart diseases.

Jessica should also make sure she doesn’t become allergic to any of the ingredients in these medications.

Jessica’s parents should help her when she is taking the drug.

What does the drug do?

This medication expands the lungs of the patient. Jessica is the case.

If the lungs are expanded, breathing problems will not be an issue again (Chung and al., 2013,).

It is a simple, yet effective treatment.

Prednisolone, an oral steroid, is used to reduce inflammation and prevent the movement essential substances from your body.

This steroid is used to control many disorders, such as ulcerative colitis and arthritis.

This drug can also treat allergies and other conditions that may affect Jessica’s skin, lungs, or blood.

When symptoms or signs of asthma persist in Jessica’s system, it is often recommended that the medication be taken.

Prednisolone can be taken orally, as opposed to salbutamol which is mainly an inhalant.

Prednisolone is administered to blood cells by inhalation when the drug is swallowed through the mouth.

The inhalants go to the lungs and the steroid moves into the bloodstream.

Prednisolone is not the only drug that can help with severe symptoms of asthma.

Jessica’s severity of asthma will dictate the dosage she takes.

Jessica may take a high dose of medication to lessen the symptoms.

She should decrease her dose as time goes by.

Jessica should adhere to the doctor’s prescriptions when she is considering using the drug. (Oshikawa, et al. 2001).

Jessica receives a syringe from her doctor every time she takes the drug.

Side effects can occur with every medicine.

Jessica will always be aware of any changes to the body when Jessica is taking this drug (National and Prevention 2007, 2007).

These include feeling dizzy, headaches, weakness, swelling of the ankles, or hands, as well as feeling dizzy.

Retention of fluid causes swelling in the hands.

Jessica must seek out medical advice for any signs and symptoms she sees in her body.

Changes in her thought patterns, unresolved wounds in her body, difficulty breathing, and unusual weight gain are some of the results.

In some cases, the drug may not work in certain situations.

Breuer et.al., 2015:

Jessica’s parents should notify the doctor immediately if they have any concerns about Jessica’s consumption of any of the above.

Jessica should also consider other factors before taking medicine (Burney, et al. 2016).

Jessica should not be allergic.

In the instance Jessica was suffering from fungal infections, her condition should be completely healed before Jessica can take this drug.

Jessica’s doctor should be notified by Jessica’s guidance of any possible disease to allow for correct prescription.

Although the above-mentioned asthma medication works best when it is not misused, Jessica may still be tempted to misuse them.

It can happen through under or overdosing.

Jessica is a typical case of abuse. However, there are ways to identify when Jessica has misused the drug.

When Jessica shows signs of deterioration, her parent will know that the child has been abusing the drugs.

If Jessica consumes salbutamol 20 times per day, it opens up for other diseases.

The lungs are most commonly affected. They may even be damaged by excessive expansion (Kaiser, et al. 2016).

Jessica could also be experiencing side effects of asthma medication misuse, such as the tendency to go through her inhalers faster than normal.

Jessica could be asking her parents to purchase more asthma medications than they normally do.

Jessica should be closely monitored by her parents during medication.

Jessica, her parents, and teachers need to be educated about asthma medication (Giovannini–Chami, 2015).

She may not be aware of potential complications when she uses more drugs.

Jessica should be taught by teachers about the dangers of sharing drugs.

Education is an essential part of life. Prevention is better that cure.

It can also be given orally, as mentioned above.

It is an antiinflammatory medication.

It is an anti-inflammatory medication that means it is absorbed directly by the body. This is unlike other types of medications (Fahya, et al. 2015).

Jessica is now immune against other conditions that could affect her, resulting in her suffering from asthma (Castro. et al. (2015).

Although this isn’t the best approach, it’s better than taking medications directly to the lungs.

Jessica’s parents have several options available to help her avoid other complications associated with asthma.

Parents should stop Jessica from smoking.

An asthma attack is caused by smoke exposure.

Jessica’s asthma attack may have been caused by that.

It is great that she has decided to stay with her grandmother.

Another way to keep your child healthy is to continue to have regular checkups.

Jessica needs to see the doctor even when she is not feeling well.

You can encourage your child to keep her breathing healthy by teaching her how to do exercises.

Jessica could also develop other disorders from environmental factors.

References

National Asthma Education, Prevention Program, National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute

Second Expert Panel on Asthma Management.

Expert panel report 2 – Guidelines for diagnosis and management.

DIANE Publishing.

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Breuer O., Brooks R., Shoseyov D., Kerem E., and Kerem E.

Implementation of policy change: Spacers are replacing Nebulizers in the treatment of asthma in children.

The Israel Medical Association journal, IMAJ, 17(7) pp.421-424.

Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3), Guidelines for the Diagnosis & Management of Asthma. Summary Report 2007.

The Journal of allergy, clinical immunology and clinical allergy 120(5 Suppl), s94.

Trends in asthma mortality, health care use and prevalence in the United States 2001-2010

GiovanniniChami, L.; Albertini M.; Scheinmann P.; and de Blic J., (2015).

There are new insights into how to treat severe asthma in children.

Paediatric respiratory review, 16(3), pages 167-173.

Variations in the prevalence and self-reported asthma attacks as well as use of asthma medication, according to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

European respiratory journal 9, 687-695.

S.V. Kaiser. Huynh. T. Bacharier. L.B. Bacharier. Parkin. P. Rosenthal. J. Bakel. Cabana. M.D.

B51 PEDIATRIC ASTHMA EVALUATION & TREATMENT: Preventing Severe Excacerbations in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze: An A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (193), p.

International ERS/ATS guidelines for severe asthma treatment.

Update on allergy immunotherapy: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology/European academy for allergy and clinical immunology/PRACTALL consensus.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 131(5): 1288-1296.

The immunology of Asthma.

Reslizumab is an inadequately controlled treatment for asthma with high blood eosinophil counts. Results from two parallel, double-blind and randomised phase 3 trials.

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(5). 355-366.

The effect of long-acting b2 antagonizers on asthma exacerbation rates in children.

Pediatric pulmonology 36(5), 391-398.

Higher soluble ST2 protein concentrations in sera of asthma patients experiencing an acute exacerbation.

American journal for respiratory and critical care medicine. 164(2), 277-281.

Evidence of significant neutrophilic inflammation found in the sputum of subjects suffering from asthma exacerbation.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 95(4): 843-852.

Basic Concepts of Pharmacology: What to Know about Each Drug Class.

McGraw Hill Professional.