HLSC122 Inquiry In Health Care


Leah, 21, is a student in health science at an Australian university.

Leah has traveled from her homeland (United States [US]), to spend a semester studying in Australia.

Living with three other international students, she reported that she gained weight around her stomach, due to not eating healthy food and not exercising regularly.

Leah loves living away, being able to socialize and go out to parties. She also enjoys trying different Australian take-out foods and mixed alcoholic drinks.

In the US, she went to the gym four times a week.

Leah, however, decided that she would not go to the gym when she arrived in Australia. Instead, she will spend her money on social activities such as going out or partying.

Leah is also a casual worker to supplement her life in Australia.

She loves to travel and doesn’t miss home.

She is interested in making lifestyle changes that will make a lasting difference to her eating and weight.

Leah comes to the university student clinic to get advice about her health.

After meeting Leah for the first time, you will locate two relevant research papers that you would like you to critically assess for quality.

The following PICO question will be used for a systematic look

Part A

Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the research studies Leah found in her CINAHL search (Rogerson Soltani & Copeland. 2016, Share et al. 2015).


You can make a judgment about the qualifications and affiliations of the authors.

Are there conflicts of interest in relation to the paper’s authors and study results?

Research Objectives

What was the research question, aims and hypothesis?

Describe the reasons the authors deemed it necessary to conduct the study.


Analyze the research methodology and the methods used to conduct the study.

Please explain why you used the methods and methodology to achieve the study’s aims.

c. Who participated in the research study

These are the results

Part B

Discuss Leah’s personal circumstances and how they might hinder the application of evidence.

Discuss how closely your research aligns with the PICO Question.


Part A.

Bianca Share, David Rogerson, and Bianca Share wrote the two research articles.

David Rogerson is an instructor in Health and well being at Sheffield Hallam University.

His qualifications include a B.Sc. M.Sc. and a Doctorate Degree in Professional Studies.

He is a registered nutritionalist and has fellowship. He has seventeen citations, 6 research publication and 937 publications.

He is a nutritionist expert, as he specializes in public health nutrition.

He was able to justify his research paper about weight loss because he is aware that it is a complicated process and that many factors are directly connected. (Rogerson Soltani Copeland 2016, 2016).

Bianca Share works as a faculty member of the Australian Catholic University’s department of physiology and public healthcare.

Her major qualifications include a Bachelor of Exercise Science (Honors), as well as a Post Doctorate (PhD). She also holds a graduate certificate and diploma in education.

She has 18 publications, 443 citations, and 12 published papers.

She is an Exercise Science professional with extensive experience and supported her research work.

She is well-informed and can control various lifestyle changes for patients.

The research publications both focus on body weight loss and maintenance, although there are some differences.

Bianca Share, the researcher, based her research on the fact that young women with obesity can make lifestyle changes to reduce their risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Cardio metabolic refers collectively to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and atherosclerosis.

This happens due to high levels of triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic dyslipidemia.

This condition is common in women with a cholesterol content of more than 50 mg/dl, and a waist circumference greater than 88 cm.

This study included a large number of females. It also involved lifestyle changes and the final results were recorded based on these factors.

The results were obtained from a linear mixed modeling that was completely different from Richardson-Tench (2016).

Rogerson’s research paper explores weight loss experience.

He discusses the maintenance and eventual loss of weight.

He is particularly concerned with factors that prevent weight loss and factors that aid in weight gain.

He uses semi-structured interviews to study his findings.

These facts are based on the recorded interview and the data used for analysis.

Finally, the data were verified.

Research Objectives

Share had the main objective to examine the effects of 12-weeks multidisciplinary lifestyle changes on cardio metabolic disease in young obese females.

Rogerson’s main objective was not to make clinical changes but rather to assess weight loss in participants who used the interview method.

Participants who completed the weight-loss program were chosen.

Share used the following research to achieve her goals: She selected young females aged 18-30 who had abdominal obesity.

The changes that occurred were closely observed. The results showed that cardio metabolic disease risks were reduced due to changes in lifestyle behaviors made by the female participants.

The researcher had specific goals when the research results were obtained.

Rogerson was primarily concerned with identifying the factors that can inhibit or facilitate weight loss.

Rogerson did not use any clinical interventions which are more accurate.

He conducted a systematic interview with participants and did not use any clinical interventions. The results showed that there were many factors including dichotomous thinking, social pressure and peer pressure that can lead to weight loss. Supportive social networks and self monitoring were also factors that contributed to weight loss.

The study’s objectives were justified by the results (Hoffman and Bennet Del Mar 2013).


After the finalization, participants were subject to pre control testing/pre modifications and were split into two groups: the wait-listed group and intervention group.

To ensure a reliable model, the researcher used a wait list design.

This model is ethical and allows all participants to make lifestyle changes (Sabourett et al., 2015).

The wait list group performed better that the control group.

The participants were asked to go to the lab twice for each testing period (0-12-24).

The participants were instructed to enter the lab in a fasted state. The test will continue for 75 minutes. Participants are then advised to stop drinking coffee and alcohol prior to the start of the lab tests.

The test were conducted at (pre ), 0 week, (12 weeks), and (sustainability period) of the intervention group.

The testing was also done in the control group during the pre- and post control period (12 weeks). All tests were conducted by the same researcher at the exact same time.

Anthropometric assessment was used to measure the total body, including BMI and metabolic syndrome markers. Evaluation of health was done to assess the heart rate and collect Survey data.

Lifestyle changes were made by behavior therapy (participants received counseling and psychosocial assistance), nutrition education (healthy diet habits and their maintenance was given by qualified dieticians) as well as physical activity (exercise supervised and monitored by an exercise scientist) (Share et. al., 2015).

Rogerson conducted research on weight loss. The methods used included theoretical underpinning, sampling (to get participants experience and it was granted ethics by Sheffield Hallam University), and data collection (interview data was collected using interview guide. Data was then analyzed using proper framework analysis. Verification (codes themes were verified.) (Rogerson. Soltani Copeland. 2016).

All the methods and methods used in both research papers were necessary and appeared to be perfect for the purpose of the researcher.

The Share study involved two groups, one for each participant.

Fixed timings were used and conditions were maintained to ensure that the desired outcomes were achieved without failure.

In order to verify the outcome, all changes made in interventions were properly documented.

Rogerson used an interview method and recorded it as evidence. Purposive sampling, however, was used for sampling.

For data collection, the interview guide was used and the verification process was carried out ( Greenhalgh and al., 2016).

Author Share received 62 participants who expressed interest in participating in the research program.

39 of these participants were accepted for further study.

Rogerson had only six participants, which was too low to allow him to obtain his research result.

Share’s research showed that positive outcomes were achieved by group analysis.

After completion of the research, the CVD risk factor was significantly reduced by lifestyle changes like nutrition education and physical therapy.

The control group showed unexpectedly positive changes, which may have outweighed the intervention group’s changes.

These results were not easy for prospective studies that included young obese women.

Rogerson found that weight loss can be complicated and that there are many factors that both inhibit or facilitate it.

The study provided data saturation, and it helped to provide all the information on weight loss experiences.

Because the study did not cover all the social and ethnic groups, the lack of diversity was a problem.

PICO Question:

Do Healthy Eating and Exercise lead to weight loss in female students at universities?

O (outcome) – Leading to weight reduction

Part B:

The PICO question was asked based on Leah’s situation.

Leah’s personal circumstances (three international students) are what make it difficult to eat healthy.

Due to abdominal obesity, she quit going to the gym that she used to go to at home.

She wanted to have fun and spend money on alcohol and Australian takeout.

To live an Australian lifestyle, she started working part-time.

She felt that her friends wouldn’t let her stop even if she tried.

PICO follows the PICO method of research for Share.

P (participants).- Although 62 female students were originally selected, only 39 female students were available for research.

The criteria for selecting participants was to determine if there were any students who had abdominal obesity and were at high risk of developing CVD.

Leah also has abdominal obesity and is at high risk for CVD.

Pico question states that participants could be university students.

I (Intervention) – This was a 12-week lifestyle change.

It involved nutrition education, physical exercise, and behavior therapy.

These changes will assist Leah in reducing her weight and lowering the risk for CVD.

C (Control),:- A control group was also taken in order to assess the effectiveness of the research.

O (Outcome),:- Due to lifestyle changes, there was sufficient weight loss in the intervention groups.

Leah can lose weight if these lifestyle changes are implemented to her.

Rogerson research study includes weight loss experience and how to maintain it.

After the changes in research by Share, this research could be applied to Leah.

This study did not involve any clinical changes.

Participants in this study were those who have lost weight.

Interviews and data collection were used. The results were analyzed and verified.

This revealed the factors that hinder and facilitate weight loss.

Weight loss is difficult because of many factors. It’s also hard to maintain.

Leah is a university student facing problems in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. She has friends who have been influencing her lifestyle.

After becoming obese, she started to eat Australian take-out foods and alcohol.

She decided to stop going to the gym as she wanted to spend her time at home.

These factors can only be derived from the interview techniques used on specific participants in this study.

Obese patients will eat more than they should, but their adhesion will last longer: The controlled overeat.

Journal of Obesity Eating Disorders.

Understanding Research Methods to Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare 1e.

Evidence-based practice in the health field

Meta-analysis of random clinical trials on intentional weight loss and all cause mortality.

PLoS One 10(3) e0121993.

Modifications in energy consumption due to altered body weight.

New England Journal of Medicine (332(10), 621–622.

Inquiry about health care (5th Edition).

A qualitative exploration of the weight loss experience.

BMC public health 16(1), 371.

UK undergraduate nutrition education may not address weight management.

Public health nutrition 19(02), 371-381.

A clinical trial randomized to determine the effect of nutrition education and behavioral intervention on serum lipid profile, blood pressure and body weight in Iranians with spinal injury.

The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 1-8.

A Randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of a multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardio metabolic risk factors in young females with abdominal obesity.

PloS one 10(6): e0130270

Blackwell Publishing Inc.