MED3MSA Medical Science


Learning Objectives

Demonstrate knowledge of the importance and application standard curves in testing unknowns

Discuss the role of ELISA for diagnostic testing, its limitations and the importanceofstandards.

Demonstrate a thorough understanding of how antigen and antibody interact in an ELISA.

Demonstrate that you understand the difference between the information in the results or the discussion.

Present results in a suitable journal format.


ELISA can be described as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent test that is commonly used with the aim of evaluating a wide range of pathophysiological conditions that adversely affect the peptides/proteins content and metabolic homeostasis.

ELISA intervention allows for the tracking of the pattern of interaction between antigens/antibodies that can give clues as to the aetiology and causes of various diseases (Aydin (2015)).

ELISA, a dynamic and widely-used diagnostic laboratory intervention, uses bovine serumalbumin to examine the pattern in non-specific binding between antigens and antibodies across the microtiter.

This can be used to generate different amounts of ELISA reactionants that bind in a non-specific manner, which could help to demonstrate a variety pathophysiological findings. (Xiao & Isaacs (2013)

The ELISA test allows for the identification of infected or non-infected candidates at a low cost.

However, the ELISA tests results are not as sensitive or specific as they could be. The range of 80%-90% is a limitation that needs to be improved. There should also be innovative ways for modifying the ELISA intervention in order to obtain the desired outcomes (Angkasekwinai, 2014).

PSA Concentrations

In patients with benign or malignant patterns of prostate enlargement, the evaluation of PSA concentrations (Ingle et. al. 2013, 2013) is usually necessary.

PSA intervention is mostly used in patients who are not symptomatic, but may be at risk for developing prostate cancer.

The PSA in serum is measured in bound and unbound status.

The PSA lab test accurately measures the total and unbound PSA within the serum.

PSA investigation is also available for patients suffering from benign prostatic Hyperplasia. These conditions can be attributed to haematuria (urine tract infection), fever, pain, and haematuria.

The slow progression and steady rise in PSA levels is an indication of cancer. This can be confirmed with prostate biopsy (LTO), 2017.

To determine if there is a difference between bound and unbound PSA, laboratory testing must be performed. This is done to identify prostate cancer cases as well as cases with elevated PSA from non-cancerous aetiology.

PSA intervention for age progression in males is highly recommended.

PSA intervention should be done for all healthy males aged 50-70 years.

An individual with a PSA value below 4ng/ml has a very low risk of developing prostate cancer.

Patients who have a PSA of greater than 10ng/ml are at higher risk for developing prostate cancer.

The American Cancer Society considers male patients with PSA values greater than 10ng/ml as being at 50% risk of developing cancer mechanisms (LTO 2017, 2017).

PSA values between 4-10ng/ml indicate a 25% chance of prostate cancer in those who are predisposed.

Male patients at high risk for developing benign prostate tumors will often have an increased level of unbound PSA.

The prostate biopsy decision in male patients is based entirely on the ratio of free-bound PSA.

LTO 2017, 2017. The PSA velocity measurement is an indicator of the rate at which the PSA concentrations have increased over time in predisposed individuals.

PSA levels increase with age. Therefore, increased PSA values can also produce false positive results which could lead to an incorrect conclusion about the prostate cancer risk in male candidates (LTO 2017).

The ultrasensitive PSA test is used to assess the risk of recurrence for prostate cancer in men who have had or are continuing to experience the complications of the disease.

Since his PSA level is 0.58249ng/ml, which is less than 4ng/ml, the patient A does not need any clinical investigation.

The patient A has no risk of developing prostate cancer, according to the lab analysis of his total PSA level.

Contrary to this, the PSA concentrations of the patients’ B & C were found to be 19.65ng/ml / 13.13ng/ml, respectively.

These levels are far higher than the PSA concentration level of 10ng/ml. This indicates that the patients’ B or C have a greater risk of developing the pattern of prostate carcinoma and its associated manifestations.

Patients B and C’s current clinical symptoms will determine if they are eligible for prostate biopsies. If so, it may be necessary to perform clinical correlation with PSA results during medical decision-making.


An Evaluation Study on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Using Recombinant Protein Pap31, for Detection Antibody Against Bartonella bacilliformis infected among the Peruvian population.

This brief history will cover the basics and types of ELISA. It will also include our laboratory experience in peptide/protein analysis using ELISA.

The Serum Prostate Special Antigen Levels are Effective in Diagnosing Prostatic Inglments.

Enzyme-Linked Impairment Assay (ELISA), Blocking with Bovine Serum Albumin – Not all BSAs work the same.

Journal of Immunological methods, pp.148-501.