PHAR 6205 Pharmacology

Question:

Write a report on Nonopioid pharmacological treatment of dental pain

Answer:

Non-opioid medications are medicines that relieve pain and reduce inflammation by limiting the formation of inflammatory mediators.

The NSAIDs, selective COX-2 inhibitors, and acetaminophen all are non-opioid pain relieving drugs.

It has been proven that non-opioid analgesics can be used to treat moderate to severe dental pain for years.

There are many formulations that contain nonopioid analgesics to help with dental pain, including NSAIDs or acetaminophen.

These products are commonly used in dentistry and have proven to be more effective in relieving pain than if each individual ingredient was used alone.

Because opioid analgesics have a higher risk of side effects, such as depression in the central nerve system or respiratory system, and can also cause stomach upsets, the use of non-opioid pain relief products has been widely utilized.

This article will talk about the many non-opioid painkillers that are commonly used to manage dental pain. They include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen.

These medications are simple to obtain and do not require a prescription. However, they can still be effective in relieving dental pain (Labianca SarziPuttini. Zuccaro. Vellucci. & Fornasari (2012)).

Acetaminophen

Paracetamol may be used to refer to Acetaminophen.

The drug is a nonopioid. It has analgesic, antipyretic and analgesic properties that can be compared with that of aspirin. It also has weaker antiinflammatory effects than NSAIDs and Aspirin.

Although it is not known exactly how acetaminophen works, it is thought that it acts the same as NSAIDs and aspirin in that it inhibits prostaglandin production.

It was discovered that acetaminophen has a greater effect on the CNS. There may be multiple mechanisms to its action, however.

Acetaminophen is a great drug for relieving dental pain. It’s also a good choice for patients who are allergic to NSAIDs (Pogatzki Zahn Chandrasena & Schug (2014)).

Acetaminophen may not be an anti-inflammatory agent, but it is effective in relieving dental pain due to inflammation.

Acetaminophen is not a good choice for treating dental pain. The most serious side effect is drug-induced livertoxicity. This can occur from either chronic or acute overdose.

The drug works well as monotherapy to reduce post-operative pain, particularly for the molars.

The analgesic effects of acetaminophen are limited when it is used in high doses to alleviate moderate and severe post-op discomfort that may result from other dental procedures.

Acetaminophen has few side effects in dentistry and is therefore considered safe.

However, it has been demonstrated that acetaminophen interacts with warfarin at very high doses. This can increase the likelihood of blood clotting, and may also cause prolonged bleeding after dental surgery (Moore & Hersh 2013).

NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

NSAIDs are thought to be the most commonly used pain relievers for dental problems.

NSAIDs have a complex mechanism of action. They inhibit the formation cyclooxygenase-2 (an enzyme responsible for the production and synthesis protaglandins that cause pain, inflammation and fever).

NSAIDs also prevent the synthesis and formation cyclooxygenase-1. This enzyme is responsible for the manufacturing of beneficial prostaglandins. It regulates platelet activity and maintains adequate blood flow.

Combination therapy can have both adverse and beneficial effects. Therefore, lower doses are preferred.

Research has shown that all NSAIDs are equally effective in relieving dental pain after surgery.

Ibuprofen is a well-known NSAID that can be used to relieve dental pain following dental surgery.

Studies on NSAIDs revealed that ibuprofen can be more effective at relieving moderate to severe dental pain, and without side effects, in comparison to placebo (Bryce Bomfim & Bassi (2014)).

Conclusion

It is clear that there are some non-opioid drugs that can be used pharmacologically to treat dental pain.

Acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and acetaminophen are two of the most commonly used non-opioid drugs.

These two agents have been extensively used in dentistry, especially after dental surgery, to reduce dental pain and inflammation.

Although these compounds can be used alone, it is important to combine them to maximize their effectiveness and minimize side effects.

References

Post-operative and pre-operative management of dental implants.

Part 1: Management of post-operative discomfort.

Chronic pain patients may experience adverse effects from non-opioid opioid and opioid treatment.

Clinical drug investigation 32(1), 53-63.

Combining ibuprofen with acetaminophen to manage acute pain after third-molar tooth extractions: translating clinical research into practice.

The Journal of the American Dental Association 144(8): 898-908.

Current Opinion In Anesthesiology 27, 513-519.