PHAR10010 Communication Skills For Pharmacy

Question:

Discuss the risks and benefits associated with Ibuprofen being used as an analgesic.

Answer:

Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAIDs), is an analgesic.

Daily doses exceeding 1200mg do not offer additional pain relief. They can also cause gastrointestinal toxicities and other cardiovascular problems (Derry, et al. 2012).

These drugs are used to manage mild-to-moderate pain, fever, inflammation.

It can be used for mild to moderate pains such as tooth pain, migraine, back pain, and arthritis pain (Nice.org.uk 2017.

Ibuprofen works by decreasing the production of pain and inflammation.

Ibuprofen can also be used to treat joint pain and tendonitis.

Ibuprofen should be used in fever, rather than Aspirin.

Ibuprofen was found to be non-addictive, and to have fewer side effects than other NSAIDs.

Normally, ibuprofen can be purchased over the counter in capsules or tablets of 200mg (Nice.org.uk 2017).

If required, adults and children over 12 years can take up to 2 tablets every 4 to 6 hours.

Ibuprofen may be intravenously administered in some cases (Derry and colleagues 2012).

You can use 800 mg for acute pain.

The daily analgesic dose limit of this drug is 400-1200 mg.

The drug can be used to treat inflammation at doses exceeding 2400mg per day without providing pain relief (Derry and colleagues 2012).

A daily dose of 1200mg or more does not offer pain relief but can lead to gastrointestinal toxicities, and even cardiovascular problems (Derry et. al. 2012).

The body generates prostaglandin which acts as a mediator for sensations such pain, fever, and inflammation.

Prostaglandin has an antipyretic effect due to its vasodilatation (hypothalamus) and increased peripheral blood circulation, which causes heat dissipation.

Ibuprofen, a non-selective inhibitor of the enzyme COX (enzyme cyclooxygenase), is responsible to the generation of prostaglandins via the arachidonic path.

COX converts arachidonic acids of the body into prostaglandin. Ibuprofen’s inhibition of COX reduces our body’s prostaglandin levels. (Rainsford, 2016).

Ibuprofen side effects include nausea, vomiting and constipation.

Ibuprofen should not be taken by people who are about to have coronary artery heart bypass surgery.

If you have congestive or severe heart failure, severe bleeding, systemic lupus, severe anaemia (SLE), or are at risk of bleeding, it is best to consult your doctor.

Ibuprofen is best for older patients.

The use of NSAIDs over-the-counter can lead to sleepiness and balance problems in older adults. This can increase the chance of falling (Derry et. al. 2012).

Drinking alcohol can lead to stomach bleeding, as well as damage to the kidneys.

Evidence suggests that miscarriage rates increase when you take high doses (Nice.org.uk 2017, 2017).

Ibuprofen cross-reacts with anti-rheumatic medications, including apixaban.

Ibuprofen is known to interact with blood thinners like Arixtra and Aspirin (Nice.org.uk 2017).

It should not be given to patients taking antidepressant medications like celexa and paraxetine (Derry, et al.

It has been proven that antidepressants can increase levels of cytokines, which in turn raises serotonin levels in the body. This happens by increasing the level proteins required to generate serotonin receptors.

Llorca and colleagues (2008) have shown that the pain killer can interfere with the production cytokines.

Ibuprofen also interacts with beta blockers, NSAIDs such as celebrex and naprosyn.

While there are some drawbacks to Ibuprofen’s use, the medicine is essential in treating pain and fever.

In treating pain and inflammation, the doctor may recommend the right dosage.

Refer to

Awa K. Satoh H. Satoh S. Hori S. and Sawada Y. 2012.

Journal of clinical pharmacy & therapeutics, 37(4), 469-474.

Cochrane database, systematic reviews, 6.

Llorca, C.S., Serra, M.P.M.

Interactions between antihypertensive and ibuprofen: Incidence and clinical relevance for dental practice.

NICE.

Aspirin, and related drugs.

CRC Press.