PHPH10003 Pharmacology 1A


Title: MRSA Outbreak: Treatment Methods and Consequences

This assignment involves the preparation of an abstract/report that does not include figures, photos or references.

The goal of this exercise is to collect a limited number of journal articles on a particular element of your title.

It is important to avoid giving a basic overview. Instead, you should consider the questions that your review may raise.



This bacteria is extremely contagious and can spread easily from one person to another through direct contact.

This infection is common in people who are hospitalized for a prolonged period. It can have a negative impact on their health and spread the bacteria to others.

MRSA infection can be classified into two categories: hospital-acquired (HAMRSA) or community acquired (CAMRSA).

MRSA can occur in hospitals, nursing homes, and other medical settings. Infections are transmitted by direct contact with infected hands or wounds (1).

CA-MRSA infections spread through contact with an infected person.

HA-MRSA can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infection. The symptoms include rash, headaches.

CA-MRSA can cause skin infection in the form of a wooly bump on the skin, called cellulitis.

MRSA can spread to hospitals in serious ways. It is most common in patients who have been in hospital for a long time.

MRSA is resistant and can have severe side effects. However it can be treated with antibiotics up to twice the usual dose (2).

These serious consequences can have serious consequences on public health. Therefore, the following report will address the implications of MRSA epidemic, treatment procedures, and their consequences.

Only 26 articles were selected from the 116 retrieved.

The review included 10 articles, as they met all the criteria.

These articles included 3 articles that dealt with the MRSA outbreak and 2 articles that highlighted the treatment options. 5 articles were used to assess the impact of MRSA infections.

MRSA Outbreak and its Implications

MRSA has serious health implications for both long-term and acute health care settings around the world.

Infections in hospitals can be deadly as they defy treatment and can lead to life-threatening illnesses.

Direct contact can spread it. Patients who have open wounds are at greatest risk of skin infection.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC estimates that 1 in 3 (33%) people are carriers of this staph bacterium absent of illness and 2 out 100 are MRSA carriers (3).

MRSA is a drug-resistant bacteria that has limited treatment options. It is threatening patients’ lives through widespread spread in hospitals and other communities.

As it is resistant to antibiotics and highly contagious, it is difficult to eliminate the infection risk.

MRSA outbreaks have been found to be most prevalent in hospitals, according to a study done in Orange County.

The vast data from the hospital wards regarding hospital stays, intraward transmission coefficients and time of readmissions as well as loss rate was compiled.

Based on the size of the outbreak and the demographic, the results showed that the virus affected more than one hospital.

The transmission rate averaged between 5% to 15% from one hospital to the other.

This indicates that MRSA infection doesn’t just affect one hospital.

It was spread to all of the hospitals in the area.

The paper’s strengths are its findings that highlighted the need to implement prevention and infection control strategies as well as policies that account interconnectedness of healthcare facilities.

As the data may not be unique to one region, it is possible to apply the obtained data to others.

There are limitations to the paper.

The study included only adults, and it did not include any neonates who were in long-term nursing homes or long-term facilities.

If a nursing facility patient is being transferred, there may be some risk of hospital infection.

A second study was done using Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst, (RHEA). It showed that MRSA simulated outbreaks at other healthcare facilities are added to existing hospital outbreaks.

These results showed that even though nursing homes do not directly contribute to the spread of hospital infections, they are important.

Hospitals and nursing homes are linked in a way that patients share, which can result in MRSA spreading. This could have serious implications for staff at hospitals, the public and the entire community.

The main strength of the study was that it provided clear information to help in the control and spread of MRSA. This is crucial for all facilities, including hospitals and nursing home.

The paper’s main flaw is its limited scope. It focused on hospitals and underestimated the MRSA rate in nursing homes. No data was available on emergency departments.

MRSA can also have serious consequences, even if it is not detected in the provinces.

MRSA-hospital, acquired infections (HAI) affects healthcare professionals’ work and health.

Nurses face challenges with their workload, increased documentation and time pressures.

Infection control is becoming more complex, increasing healthcare organizations’ financial burden.

Additionally, hygiene and cleaning procedures are required to prevent and control infection from spreading to other places or individuals.

Nosocomial illness can disrupt patient care and hospital costs. It requires aggressive measures to prevent the spread to other healthcare settings.

Results (MRSA Treatment).

MRSA infection must be prevented from spreading and emergence, since there are few treatment options for it.

There are few treatment options, such as prudent use antibiotics to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MRSA), and good hygiene and infection control practices. This includes hand hygiene in hospitals and communities.

MRSA is resistant even to penicillin, amoxicillin, and oxacillin. This makes MRSA treatment difficult.

MRSA was treated with antibiotics in an experiment.

First, MRSA infection must be incised. Then the area must be drained.

MRSA infection can be treated by IV antibiotics. Vancomycin (30 mg/kg) is used as the first-line treatment. The dose is then gradually decreased to 90 minutes to avoid hypersensitivity.

A second-line treatment is Cubicin and Daptomycin, at a dose of 4-6 mg/kg every 24 hours.

While safe, there may be side effects such as an increase in creatinekinase.

Linezolid is used as a third-line therapy. It is given in a 600mg dose every 12 hours. Linezolid is a monoamine oxygenase inhibitor and has bioavailability of 100 percent.

Vancomycin is the most commonly used treatment for MRSA infection in hospitalized patients. However it is not an ideal option due to MRSA resistance, dosing errors, slow cidality and poor clinical activity.

Heteroresistance is a reduction in MRSA response rates that does not affect mortality rates.

Linezolid is more effective than vancomycin for soft tissue infections with an 87% efficiency and 49% efficiency.

Daptomycin is also effective in fighting MRSA infection due to a newer class of oxazolidinones.

The study is valuable because it provides a wealth of information on MRSA antibiotics. This highlights the major developments in recent years in order to better understand the causes and treatment options.

However, the paper didn’t address the new molecular mechanism for the development of MRSA antibiotics.

Tygacil IV can be used in fourth-line therapy. The dosage is 100 mg IV one time followed by 50 mg IV every twelve hours. This treatment has broad-spectrum activity and effective broad-spectrum antibiotic activity.

MRSA treatment can be carried out with fifth-line therapy, such as Synercid or Quinupristin.

Cleocin (clindamycin) is the second-line treatment. However, the organism could develop resistance to the drug if it has developed erythromycin resistance.

MRSA infection treatment needs to find new targets.

Study revealed that fifth-generation antibiotics like monobactams (carbapenems), cephalosporins (cephalosporins), glycopeptides, tetracyclines, and monobactams are effective in nature to reduce the antimicrobial resistance of MRSA infections.

However, the study didn’t address the issue of the need to use new antibiotics in managing antimicrobial resistant (7)


MRSA infection has a negative impact on the quality life of patients.

It has a serious impact on quality of life, leading to patient isolation as well as a burden of disease in the local community and hospitals.

MRSA infection was first studied in patients with cancer. Its impact on family members and patients was examined (9).

The major findings revealed that MRSA infection can cause distress in patients and lead to ineffective coping methods.

MRSA infection can have a devastating effect on patients. Patients feel angry, frustrated, and stigmatized.

It can also have a negative effect on their relationships and overall care, as they feel isolated when patients are not to blame.

There were limitations to the paper, such as the small sample that did not allow for generalizations to other cancer populations.

Comparing the perceived impact of cancer to MRSA was a limitation of this study. It could lead to future studies that will evaluate the psychological impact of MRSA infections on advanced cancer patients.

Staph bacteria antibiotic resistance is another factor that contributes to an increase in the spread of infections and transmission rates.

MRSA is a widespread infection that has a clinical and economic impact on the patient and healthcare systems as well as the community (10).

This creates a significant burden of resistant infections on hospitals for cost analysis.

Antimicrobial therapy costs are increasing, including drug acquisition and delivery.

S.aureus has also had an impact on hospital lengths.

The increased hospital stay encourages hospital discharge late, increasing financial costs and inefficiency (11).

MRSA infection can cause serious health problems and affect patients’ quality of living.

Patients who are exposed to ignorant staff members while seeking medical care can feel humiliated, angry, and guilt.

MRSA infection causes patients to feel isolated and traumatized. They also experience a sense of being in prison for poor rehabilitation.

Patients feel stigmatized because they are subject to fearful and unprofessional medical staff behaviours.

Ineffective infection control measures by hospital staff can also have serious consequences for patient suffering.

MRSA infection in particular hospitals or communities can pose a clinical and economic burden on the overall healthcare system, quality of life, and care for inpatients (12).


MRSA is an epidemic. This means that it not only affects one hospital or community but also the entire region, which can have serious consequences.

It has severe clinical and economic consequences for the patients and their families as well as hospital staff, particularly nurses.

MRSA is a pathogen that can lead to antibiotic resistance. There are limited treatment options.

Many antibiotics are effective, especially second-line therapies like Linezolid IV and Daptomycin through IV.

Some cases may also require oral antibiotics with 95% efficiency.

MRSA infection can be treated with a variety of treatments. However, the spread of MRSA is a serious problem.

It can reduce the quality of patient’s lives due to stigmatization, isolation, and stigmatization.

They feel scared, anxious, guilty and agitated. But, this is not the fault of the patients.

It can also lead to financial difficulties and adversely affect healthcare professionals’ work lives.

MRSA must be controlled by nurses and healthcare professionals to prevent the disease from spreading.

MRSA is becoming more resistant to anti-MRSA antibiotics due to novel genetic mechanisms.

It is therefore necessary to have effective infection control measures in place and to develop antibiotics that target the unique genetic mechanism that causes resistance against anti-MRSA antibiotics.

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