SK299 Human Biology

Question:

Write about Human tissues.

Tissues that make up the stomach

1) Use the diagram attached to differentiate between and explain the terms Organs, Systems, Tissues, and Cells.

2) Explain that organs can be part of multiple body systems and their function is determined by the system they are in.

3. Describe how temperature affects bacteria growth

4) What is a common physiological property that bacteria shares, like respiration or toxin production?

Answer:

1: Cells Tissues Organs And Systems

Cells are the smallest unit within life. They are composed of a cell membrane (in plants), genetic material, and a cell wall (in animals).

It is the fundamental structural and functional unit in the human body, which makes up the complex human structure.

Two types of cells exist:

Two types of cells exist: prokaryotes, and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotic cells are primitive, like bacteria cells that consist of cell membrane, genetic materials, and simple organelles.

Eukaryotic cells have compartmentalization.

The eukaryotic cell population makes up the majority (Baquero, Nombela and others 2012).

All cells within a tissue often work in collaboration to accomplish a certain physiological function in the body.

Multiple tissues may work together to create an organ. However, organs are made up of multiple organs. Organs can be composed of several organs working in concert to accomplish a common purpose.

This example will show you how to link these levels of organization.

Each cell in tissue is composed of several cells working together to achieve a similar function.

There are four types of tissues: the epithelial and connective tissue, muscle and nerve tissue, as well as connective tissue and muscle tissue.

Epithelial tissues are composed of light-packed sheets of cells that cover organs and the body cavity.

Columnar epithelium is a type of epithelial tissue that forms a barrier to fluid and infectious organism movement. For example, the linings of stomachs are made of columnar epithelium.

Muscle tissue and muscle fibres are another type.

Smooth muscle tissue can be found in stomach. This is located within the walls of the digestive system. It helps to push food through the digestive track in an involuntary fashion.

Connective tissue, another tissue type, supports and links other tissues.

A fluid matrix known as plasma is made up of blood, which is loose connective tissue and contains nutrient- and oxygen-rich nutrients.

The nervous tissue, which is comprised of nerve cells or neurons for transmitting signals (Pocock Richards & Richards 2013). It is important in the sense of stimuli.

The organs are made of different tissues and each one serves a purpose. Heart circulates blood, stomach assists in digestion, pancreas produces digestive juices and the rectum aids with the excretory process.

A system includes two or more organs with similar functions. This could include the digestive system.

The digestive system is made up of pancreas (and stomach) working together for digestion.

2: Relationship Between Organ Functions & Body System

Our bodies are made up of complex structures. These structures work together to carry out all biological and physiological functions that support our survival and growth.

The functions of each organ can be affected by the malfunction of another.

There are many levels of structure in the human body.

The structure of the human body can be broken down into levels, starting with cells and ending up in complex organ systems.

This hierarchy is unique to each organ system within the human body.

The cell is the fundamental unit of structure organization.

The developmental phase is when pluripotent (or multipotent) stem cells are capable of dividing in various types of cells.

After differentiation, these cells are limited to a particular type of tissue or cell.

These unipotent cell types make up a particular type of tissue.

These unipotent cell types work in a particular organ system to achieve a similar function (Jenkins & Tortora (2011)).

The digestive system, for example, is responsible for digesting food, providing energy, nutrients and vitamins to cells and water for physiological functions.

The digestive system includes mouth, stomach and esophagus.

These organs all work together to aid digestion.

These organs are made up of cells and tissues that facilitate digestion.

While each organ is performing its own function, they also help to facilitate the function and function of any nearby organ.

Both the pancreas as well as the stomach release digestive juice. This helps to break down complex molecules and facilitates the work of the entire organ system (Park & Ahima (2015)).

3: Temperature and Bacteria Growth

Temperature is a major external factor that has a significant impact on the growth and development of bacteria.

The environment in which they live determines the nature and function of their bacterial pool.

According to temperature, the classification has been made of bacteria, i.e.

The classification of bacteria has been done based on temperature.

Thermophiles can survive at temperatures higher than 50oC while still being capable of enduring harsh conditions.

These organisms live in hot springs or deep beneath the oceans through thermal vents or hot rock.

However, psychrophiles can be grown at temperatures as low to -5oC and a maximum temperature of 10 to 20oC.

Their growth is negatively affected by high temperature.

Mesophiles however, thrive at normal temperatures, i.e.

At 20oC to40oC, mesophiles grow.

These are the main human pathogens and the beneficial microorganisms.

All the normal flora in gut and stomach are mesophiles. They can be grown at body temperature (Park, Ahima, 2015).

Exceptions are H. Pylori and most other organisms that cannot survive in stomach acidity.

4: Physiological Property Of Bacteria

Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms. All their biological functions are performed within a single cell.

Respiration can take place in the presence or absence oxygen in bacteria.

Anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria are the two types of bacteria.

Facultative anaerobes are bacteria which can survive without oxygen.

The first stage of respiration is glycolysis. In this process, sugar molecules are broken down into pyruvate (ATP) and pyruvate (pyruvate).

These products can be used in oxidative respiration to create ATPs. ATPs are then used in the electron transport chain with the aid of proton gradient.

However, pyruvate, which is insufficient oxygen, is used in fermentation procedures to produce organic acids and carbon dioxide (Tille 2013).

Reference List

The microbiome, a human organ.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection (18(s4)), 2-4.

Medical microbiology.

Human physiology.

Oxford university Press.

Human physiology: From cells and systems.

Principles of human physiology.

Pearson Higher Ed.

Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology-EBook.

Anatomy & physiology.

Physiology of Leptin: Energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function.