Personalty Disorder

Review the talking points on the Personality DO. Find a picture that you think represents the personality. Label it and upload the 10 slides to MOODLE. You should have 12 slides total: 1 cover page, 1 reference page, and 10 image slides.

The topic title is Personality Disorder, the attached image has the headings for each slide. The first slide will be definition of the disorder.

 

No need for the below in the slide.

Alterations in health 

Safety consideration 

Inter-professional care

 

Let’s merge these two headings into one slide

Merge

Labs/ Diagnostic Procedures

The 10 Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders

 

A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that:

 

Deviates markedly from the expectation of one’s culture.

Is pervasive, maladaptive, and inflexible.

Has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood.

Is stable over time.

 

Leads to distress or impairment

 

All personality disorders share four common characteristics.

 

· Inflexibility/maladaptive responses to stress

· Disability in social and professional relationships

· Tendency to provoke interpersonal conflict

· Capacity to cause irritation or distress in others

·

Personality disorders are predisposing factors for many other psychiatric disorders and often co-occur with depression and anxiety.

 

Personality disorders have a significant effect on the course of treatment for other psychiatric disorders.

 

A client with a personality disorder demonstrates long-term maladaptive behavior

that prevents accomplishment of desired goals in relationships and other efforts.

 

The maladaptive behaviors of a personality disorder are not experienced as

uncomfortable by the individual and some areas of personal functioning may be

very adequate.

 

The medical diagnosis of a personality disorder is found under Axis II of the

DSM-V.

 

Personality disorders are divided into three groups, called clusters.

Cluster A – generally described as odd or eccentric

Cluster B – generally described as dramatic, emotional, or erratic

Cluster C – generally described as anxious or fearful

 

Key Factors

Defense mechanisms used by clients with personality disorders include

repression, suppression, regression, undoing, and splitting.

 

Of these, splitting, the inability to incorporate positive and negative aspects

of oneself or others into a whole image, is frequently seen in the inpatient

setting.

 

Splitting is commonly associated with borderline personality disorder.

 

In splitting, the client tends to characterize people or things as all good or all

bad at any particular moment. For example, the client might say, “You are the

worst person in the world.” Later that day she might say, “You are the best,

but the nurse from the last shift is absolutely terrible.”

 

Cluster A

(Odd or eccentric traits)

 

Paranoid personality

Characterized by distrust and suspiciousness toward

others based on unfounded beliefs that others want

to harm, exploit, or deceive the person

 

Schizoid personality

Characterized by emotional detachment, disinterest

in close relationships, and indifference to praise or

criticism; often uncooperative

 

Schizotypal personality

Characterized by odd beliefs leading to interpersonal difficulties, an eccentric appearance, and magical

thinking or perceptual distortions that are not clear

delusions or hallucinations

Cluster B

(Dramatic, emotional, or erratic traits)

 

Antisocial personality

Characterized by disregard for others with

exploitation, repeated unlawful actions, deceit, and

failure to accept personal responsibility

 

Borderline personality

Characterized by instability of affect, identity,

and relationships; fear of abandonment, splitting

behaviors, manipulation, and impulsiveness; often

tries self-mutilation and may be suicidal

 

Histrionic personality

Characterized by emotional attention-seeking

behavior, in which the person needs to be the center

of attention; often seductive and flirtatious

 

Narcissistic personality

Characterized by arrogance, grandiose views of

self-importance, the need for consistent admiration,

and a lack of empathy for others that strains most

relationships; often sensitive to criticism

 

 

 

Cluster C

(Anxious or fearful traits; insecurity and inadequacy)

 

Avoidant personality

Characterized by social inhibition and avoidance

of all situations that require interpersonal contact,

despite wanting close relationships, due to extreme

fear of rejection; often very anxious in social

situations

 

Dependent personality

Characterized by extreme dependency in a close

relationship with an urgent search to find a

replacement when one relationship ends; the most

frequently-seen personality disorder in the clinical

setting

 

Obsessive-compulsive personality

Characterized by perfectionism with a focus on orderliness and control to the extent that the

individual may not be able to accomplish a given

task

Nursing Interventions

Safety is always a priority concern, since some clients with a personality disorder are at risk for self- or other-directed violence.

 

Developing a therapeutic relationship is often challenging due to the client’s distrust or hostility toward others.

 

A firm, yet supportive approach and consistent care will help build a

therapeutic nurse-client relationship.

 

Limit-setting is important when working with the client who is manipulative or who acts out.

 

Feelings of being threatened or having no control may cause a client to act out toward the nurse.

 

Offering the client realistic choices may enhance the client’s sense of control.

 

Communication strategies, client outcomes, and therapies should be aimed at the specific personality disorder.

 

Communication Strategies

Limit-setting and consistency are essential with clients who are manipulative, especially those with borderline or antisocial personality disorders.

 

Assertiveness training and modeling can be important for clients with

dependent and histrionic personality disorders.

 

For clients with histrionic personality disorder, who may be very flirtatious, it is important to maintain professional boundaries and communication.

 

Clients with schizoid or schizotypal personality disorders tend to isolate themselves, and this need for social isolation should be respected.

 

For very dependent clients, self-assess frequently for countertransference reactions to client’s clinging and frequent requests for help.