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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, and it affects millions of people worldwide. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis are commonly manifested in the hands, knees, hips, and spine. Although the damage to bones cannot be reversed, some treatments help minimize the progression of bone deterioration. The most common symptoms are pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of flexibility. Some risk factors associated with osteoarthritis are obesity, age, sex, bone deformities, and genetics (Bharat et al., 2022). On the other hand, rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects bones, skin, eyes, heart, and blood vessels. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the lining of the bones. Some symptoms associated with this condition are fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, swollen and tender joints, and stiffness that is usually worse in the morning (Hill et al., 2022).

Heberden’s nodes are bony growth that appear closest to the fingertips and are a symptom of osteoarthritis. These nodes can cause pain and stiffness in the hands. Treatment might include medication, therapy, and surgery. On the other hand, Bouchard’s nodes are similar to Heberden’s nodes, but they differ in location. Bouchard’s nodes are commonly found in the middle joints, while Heberden’s nodes are located in the joint closest to the tip of the fingers (McCance et al., 2019).

Gouty arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that can be very painful. It usually occurs in one joint at a time, while osteoarthritis can occur in multiple joints simultaneously. Symptoms associated with gouty arthritis are heat, redness, swelling, and intense pain. The causes related to gouty arthritis are the build-up of excess uric acid in the body while the causes of osteoarthritis are usually the wear and tear of the bones over time. Risk factors associated with gouty arthritis are male sex, alcohol consumption, a diet high in sugars and purines, and chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension (Kotlyarov et al., 2020).