Replies To Two Classmates.

Reply to classmate’s discussion ( answers to your peer of 150 words) each reply needs citation and reference independently. Turnitin less 15%.


Classmate 1 post:


Full Practice Authority (F.P.A.) legislation is developing statutes to guide the operations of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (A.P.R.Ns). The United States authority revises the nursing practice acts to formulate policies for F.P.A. Formulation of F.P.A legislations requires close coordination between the law legislators and physicians organizations as it provides a blend between the legal requirement and nursing standards (Myers &Alliman, 2018). Collaboration between the lawmakers and physician groups during F.P.A legislation has both advantages and disadvantages in the quality and outcome of the process.

Involving physicians during F.P.A legislation increases the scope of the policies and eases the implementation. The nursing profession has standards familiar to the practitioners, including the code of conduct, the extent of training required, minimum level of education, and procedures, among other critical details (Myers &Alliman, 2018). The politicians and legal advisors need the input of physicians in interpreting the relevant terms required in the nursing field. The clinicians understand the unique needs of patients, the transformations that are lacking in the nursing service and the best resources the government should provide to maximize patients’ utility of the health care services (Myers &Alliman, 2018). Furthermore, the physicians get a clear grasp of the legal provisions of the act for implementation and monitoring. Therefore, physicians must be part of the F.P.A legislation to guarantee greater effectiveness and effectiveness of the nursing profession. Nurses should lead the procedures and interventions for redesigning the health care system.

Lack of awareness, few opportunities for involvement in policymaking, and inadequate skills are among the drawback of collaboration with the physicians during F.P.A legislation. Nursing training curricula include limited formal health care policy education. Therefore, the physicians require significant time to understand policy issues relating to health care so that they may contribute adequately to the legislation (Van et al., 2022). Furthermore, the lawmaking personnel hardly give the nurses sufficient time to generate needed evidence influential to healthcare policy. However, these hurdles do not underrate the contributions that may be achieved in the quality of F.P.A legislation policies involving them in the process.

In conclusion, the input of physicians during F.P.A legislation is critical in developing laws that govern the nursing practice. However, the government and health departments should strive to lay a foundation that places nurses in a better position to understand the legal perspective of their profession. For instance, the inclusion of health care policies in training institutions as part of the curriculum encourages political involvement among nursing students. It empowers the nursing faculty to participate in policy amendments, thus preparing them to participate in lawmaking. Above all, nurses’ employers should provide staff with ample time, opportunities, and resources to influence local and federal policymaking.


Myers, C. R., & Alliman, J. (2018). Updates on the quest for full practice authority. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners14(7), 559-565.

Van Wijk, M., Lalleman, P. C. B., Cummings, G. G., & Engel, J. (2022). Public opinion leadership in nursing practice: A rogerian concept analysis. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice23(1), 67-79.




Classmate 2 post:

FPA Legislations Collaborations

Full Practice Authority (FPA) authorizes the nurse practitioners to make evaluations on patients, diagnosis, order, and interpretation of the diagnostic tests. The nurses are given the authority to make initiations and the management of treatments for the patients. Normally, physician involvement is not required during FPA. The collaboration of the nurses pursuing FPA with the physician organizations can pose both advantages and disadvantages during practice. The essay discusses the pros and cons.

The advantages of the collaborations are as follows. The collaboration ensures that the nurse practitioners can seek guidance and advice from the physicians where need be concerning patient care. The process ensures that the nurses offer properly informed services and that the patients can independently access health care from them (Brom, Salsberry, & Graham, 2018). The physicians can also take part in health care practice by taking on responsibilities to support the nurse practitioners (De Bruijn-Geraets et al., 2018). The process does not require the physicians to be paid and the process reduces the workload for the nurses. It leads to the nurse practitioners providing health care services with the involvement of physicians which reduced the number of medical errors as the physicians are supervising. The collaborations also ensure that the patients can access both the nurses and physicians at the same time which leads to greater health care, especially in underserved areas.

The disadvantages of the collaborations include the following. the physicians may tend to use the collaboration requirements in exercising unnecessary control over the nurse practitioners. The unreasonable exercise of power may cause conflict between the FPA nurses and the physicians. Poor or improper communication between the FPA nurses and the physicians can result in conflict. The process can lead to an increase in the medical errors by the nurses which results in poor health care outcomes. any unsatisfactory interprofessional relationship between the nurses and physicians can partially contribute to the shortage of nurses whereby the nurses decide to leave their professions. The physician’s time used up in the supervision reduces the ability of the nurses to provide proper health care to the patients. The time can be better utilized to increase the hours for health care provisions by physicians (Moore, Kabbe, Gibson, T. S., & Letvak, 2020). The process would ensure an increased utilization of the health care providers’ resources. The collaboration of the physicians and the nurses can result in increased costs for health care to pay for the oversight of the physicians during the practice.

The main reason FPA legislation was created is to eliminate the process of involving physicians in practice. The process would ensure improved access to care by patients, lower costs and the protection of the choice of the patients.



Brom, H. M., Salsberry, P. J., & Graham, M. C. (2018). Leveraging health care reform to accelerate nurse practitioner full practice authority. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners30(3), 120.

De Bruijn-Geraets, D. P., van Eijk-Hustings, Y. J., Bessems-Beks, M. C., Essers, B. A., Dirksen, C. D., & Vrijhoef, H. J. M. (2018). National mixed methods evaluation of the effects of removing legal barriers to full practice authority of Dutch nurse practitioners and physician

Moore, C., Kabbe, A., Gibson, T. S., & Letvak, S. (2020). The pursuit of nurse practitioner practice legislation: a case study. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice21(4), 222-232.