Be sure to provide 5 APA citations of the supporting evidence-based peer reviewed articles you selected to support your thinking.
Please be sure to follow EACH AND EVERY BULLET POINT. Make sure to ANSWER EACH QUESTION ACCURATELY.
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Use this document to complete the evaluation table requirement of the Module 4 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 3A: Critical Appraisal of Research
|Full APA formatted citation of selected article.||Article #1||Article #2||Article #3||Article #4|
|Hall, L. H., Johnson, J., Watt, I., Tsipa, A., & O’Connor, D. B. (2016). Healthcare staff wellbeing, burnout, and patient safety: a systematic review. PloS one, 11(7), e0159015. |
|Cotel, A., Golu, F., Pantea Stoian, A., Dimitriu, M., Socea, B., Cirstoveanu, C., … & Oprea, B. (2021, March). Predictors of burnout in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Healthcare (Vol. 9, No. 3, p. 304). MDPI.||Pérez-Fuentes, M. D. C., Molero Jurado, M. D. M., Martos Martínez, Á., & Gázquez Linares, J. J. (2019). Burnout and engagement: Personality profiles in nursing professionals. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(3), 286.||Salmela-Aro, K., Hietajärvi, L., & Lonka, K. (2019). Work burnout and engagement profiles among teachers. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 2254.|
|Evidence Level * |
(I, II, or III)
|Evidence level ii||Evidence level iii||Evidence level i||Evidence level ii|
|Conceptual Framework |
Describe the theoretical basis for the study (If there is not one mentioned in the article, say that here).**
|To examine the relationship between health care workers’ well-being and patient safety during the COVID-19 Pandemic. (Gunning,2020) |
|A possible variable in diagnosing burnout in doctors and nurses might be the percentage of occupational assaults against professionals’ hostility in various forms of healthcare services, discriminating between physical and verbal aggression. (Cotel,2021)||Burnout is more closely linked to workplace demands (hours worked, work-family conflict, subjective stress), while job resources (autonomy, significance, skill discretion) are more closely linked to engagement. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||Unmentioned|
Describe the design and how the study was carried out (In detail, including inclusion/exclusion criteria).
|Studying healthcare workers’ well-being and burnout, as well as safety for patients, in quantitative, empirical ways. (Hall,2016)||An analysis of medical records from three hospitals and 22 primary care clinics in Spain (n = 1826) was carried out retrospectively. Healthcare employees’ hostility and burnout were examined by the authors using a variety of questionnaires. (Cotel,2021)||Participation in an anonymous survey was requested from nurse leaders at a Midwestern hospital. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||Eight cluster-randomized trials, four crossover studies, and four before and after controlled investigations of a work-directed intervention were included in this study, bringing the total number of studies in this review to 58. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
The number and characteristics of
patients, attrition rate, etc.
|The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that caused Covid-19 was found in a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, and reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31. On March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Covid-19 a pandemic due to its rapid spread and severeness (WHO, 2020). |
|At least one year of continuous service in the same position. 600 physicians (33.02 percent), 878 nurses (48.08 percent), 144 administrators (7.99 percent), 23 managers (1.26 percent), 49 patient attendants (2.7%), 129 technicians and others (7.06 percent) make up the hospital’s employees. 642 percent were women and 358 percent were males, with an average age of 4184 years (SD 8427 years). (Cotel,2021)||There were 162 nurse leaders in the first sample (50 percent response rate). Women comprised 91% of the participants, with a wide range of ages and lengths of service (M = 8.32, SD = 7.66). As a private Midwestern Emergency Medical Technician company employs 54 EMTs and 45 paramedics in the field, the company’s response rate is 48 percent. Males accounted for 66% of the sample, however the age and tenure of the group were both variable (M = 31.35, SD = 8.73). (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||7188 people participated in the study, with 3592 in intervention and 3596 in control groups. There were less than 120 individuals in the majority of the randomized clinical trials included in this review. Only 26 of the 58 studies involved participants with a total number greater than 60. Only 17 of the studies included in this analysis had a sample size of more than 110 people, making this a rather small sample size. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
|Major Variables Studied |
List and define dependent and independent variables
|Participant age and sex are two of the independent factors. The findings of the survey and the role played by the participants in healthcare are examples of dependent variables. (Hall,2016) |
|Participants’ age, gender, and length of service are examples of independent variables. Survey findings and the participants’ roles in healthcare are two examples of dependent variables. (Cotel,2021)||Participant age, sex, and tenure are among the independent factors. Survey findings and the participants’ roles in healthcare are two examples of dependent variables. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||Independent variables include participant age and sex. Survey findings and the participants’ roles in healthcare are two examples of dependent variables. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
Identify primary statistics used to answer clinical questions (You need to list the actual tests done).
|MBI-Human Services Survey” is an international variant of the “MBI-Early Exhaustion” scale. The Burnout Scale, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI), the Physician Well-Being Index, a single-question approach, and a symptom-based stress survey were some of the other options available to researchers.||General Survey (MBI), Areas of Work–Life Scale (AWS), Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). (Cotel,2021)||What is your average weekly working time? The Copenhagen Work Burnout Inventory (CBI), job engagement, work–life balance Scale, Job Control–Decision Authority measure, Job Content Questionnaire, Work and Meaning Inventory asked participants this question.||Maslach Burnout and the effects of stress reduction therapies Self-reported data on suicidal thoughts and attempts, as well as data on patient outcomes or satisfaction in matched cohorts, should be included in the inventory (Salmela-Aro,2019|
|Data Analysis Statistical or |
(You need to enter the actual numbers determined by the statistical tests or qualitative data).
|More than half of the publications assessing well-being indicated that poor well-being was associated with lower patient safety (16/27, 59.3%). A further six research (22.2 percent) identified a link between patient safety and well-being. Errors were shown to be a significant factor in the majority of studies measuring burnout (21/30, 70 percent). Burnout and mistake were found to be linked in four other investigations. All but one of the 11 studies that measured both wellbeing and burnout indicated that errors were associated with both low wellbeing and increased risk of burnout. (Hall,2016)||11 percent of those polled (201) reported being physically assaulted at least once; 5 percent (92) reported being assaulted more than once; 34 percent (628) reported being subjected to threats and intimidation at least once; 23 percent (435) reported being subjected to threats and intimidation multiple times; and 36 percent (668) reported being insulted at least once; 24 percent (444) reported being insulted multiple times. Violence and threats were more common among patients in major hospitals with high levels of services such as Accidents and Emergencies (48%) and Psychiatry (26%) than among patients in smaller hospitals with lower levels of services. (Cotel,2021)||Sixty-four percent (Sample 1) and seventy-six percent (Sample 2) of the variance in burnout was explained by the entire model. In comparison to job resources, job demands predicted considerably greater variance in burnout across samples (R2 =.45, p .001 and.30, p =.01). Despite the fact that work hours were not a significant predictor, work–life balance/work–family conflict emerged as a substantial predictor of burnout in both groups and explained 34.5 percent and 55.9 percent of the total R2, respectively, in Sample 1 and Sample 2. Burnout was highly linked to subjective stress in Sample 1, accounting for 41.9 percent of the total R. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||About half to eighty-five percent of orthopedic surgeons are suffering from burnout. Stress reduction by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and alterations to work schedules and mentoring programs were both mentioned in this Cochrane Review as having low-to-moderate evidence in their favor. Relaxation practices such as mindfulness, massage, and exercise were found to have a small impact on stress levels at both the one- and six-month follow-ups. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
|Findings and Recommendations |
General findings and recommendations of the research
|The fact that lower patient safety is linked to both burnout and poor well-being in the majority of research examined has important implications for healthcare policymakers and management teams. Research shows that worker wellbeing may play a significant influence in patient safety, which is essential to providing high quality patient care. (Hall,2016)||The authors were able to establish a link between violence and exhaustion based on their findings. As a result of these events, a patient may get exhausted and cynical, but we may also consider that these events may foster aggressive conduct from a patient who does not feel effectively served. More research is needed to determine the role of intervention programs in preventing violence as well as providing professionals with the skills they need to deal with situations that could become conflictual. (Cotel,2021)||Both burnout and engagement are related to a common set of demands and resources for health care employees, but in distinct ways. Job demands (e.g., stress and work–life balance) predicted variance in burnout after controlling for job resources, in accordance with previous research. Burnout was better predicted by factors such as stress and work–life conflict/balance than by factors such as job resources. Overall worker health, work ability, and depressive symptoms were more influenced by burnout compared to employee engagement. Not only do employers need to evaluate burnout and engagement separately, but they also need to view these variables as separate workplace outcomes and unique predictors of other work-related experiences, such as health, as well as these variables as distinct workplace outcomes. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||CBT was not shown to be more helpful than computer training or the attendance of a psychologist at staff meetings in reducing stress levels. Changes in working environment, schedules, or mentorship all had a minimal impact on stress levels. To be most useful, future research should include a randomized clinical study involving at least 110 with orthopedic surgeons and examine the relationship between stress levels in doctors and patient outcomes. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
|Appraisal and Study Quality |
Describe the general worth of this research to practice.
What are the strengths and limitations of study?
What are the risks associated with implementation of the suggested practices or processes detailed in the research?
What is the feasibility of use in your practice?
|The papers in this category have all through a rigorous data extraction and quality assessment process, making them particularly strong candidates for inclusion. There aren’t any dangers in putting the ideas into action. The organization I work for has the ability to improve patient outcomes by focusing on the well-being of its employees. You can use a variety of methods to make your employees feel appreciated and valued. (Hall,2016)||This review is constrained by the fact that it relies on self-reporting. The article’s strengths were its enormous number of participants (1826 total) Implementation of the recommended techniques poses no risk. A program to reduce violence can be implemented by the company where I work. An Employee Assistance Program is now in place at the company (Cotel,2021)||Due to the failure to show a causal link between aggression and burnout, this review is insufficient. The article’s strengths include the fact that the researchers’ conclusion was validated by empirical evidence. Implementation of the recommended techniques poses no risk. Work/life balance can be advocated and supported by the company I work for, and I believe that this is possible. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||The included randomized clinical studies had fewer than 120 individuals, hence the scope of this review is restricted. The enormous number of contributors to this article was one of its strongest suits (7188 to (Salmela-Aro,2019tal)|
|Key findings |
|Using the data from these research, it may be hypothesized that overworked employees get depressed as a result of their exhaustion. Because of this, burnout and depression can present itself in the form of exhaustion, irritation, and a decreased capacity to think clearly, all of which has a negative impact on teamwork and individual work performance. (Hall,2016)||There are two processes that contribute to burnout: a clear process of weariness due to excessive effort, and a second process that illustrates the relationship between a mismatch in values and interpersonal conflict and three elements of burnout syndrome. Value congruence and energy and involvement are two areas where aggression has made a significant impact. (Cotel,2021)||The findings of this study show that health care professionals’ experiences of burnout and engagement are linked to distinct patterns of response to the same set of demands and resources. After adjusting for work resources, job demands accurately predicted burnout. The relative importance of stress and conflict/balance between work and personal life was also found to be a stronger predictor of burnout than job resources. Burnout and engagement have varied patterns of relationship with a common set of demands and resources among health care employees, according to the findings of this study (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||Stress reduction by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and alterations to work schedules and mentoring programs were both mentioned in this Cochrane Review as having low-to-moderate evidence in their favor. In comparison to no intervention, relaxation techniques (such as mindfulness, massage, and exercise) were linked to a moderate reduction in stress after one and six months of follow-up, respectively. In addition, when compared to no treatment, CBT substantially lowered stress. Computer training or passive attendance, on the other hand, were proven to be more effective stress-reduction methods.|
|To execute effective therapies, an explanatory model for the relationship between well-being and burnout is essential. In order to deliver a safe service to their patients, healthcare institutions should establish a work atmosphere that promotes employee well-being and prevents burnout. (Hall,2016)||A prevention strategy based on this study’s findings has been proposed by the authors, and it involves medical and legal assistance as well as counseling for victims. With management’s help, they’re currently working on intervention models that are based on proposals from healthcare practitioners themselves. (Cotel,2021)||It’s common to think of burnout and employee engagement as diametrically opposed concepts when designing and evaluating workplace interventions. It’s expected that either preventing burnout would result in more engaged workers, or vice versa. Research does not support this claim. (Pérez-Fuentes,2019)||The prevalence and causes of stress and burnout among orthopedic professionals are now being studied by a number of professional bodies. (Salmela-Aro,2019)|
|General Notes/Comments||This research was fascinating to me. It was chock-full of valuable information. I was able to visualize the data in my mind and it was easy to understand. (Hall,2016) |
Hall, L. H., Johnson, J., Watt, I., Tsipa, A., & O’Connor, D. B. (2016). Healthcare staff wellbeing, burnout, and patient safety: a systematic review. PloS one, 11(7), e0159015.
Cotel, A., Golu, F., Pantea Stoian, A., Dimitriu, M., Socea, B., Cirstoveanu, C., … & Oprea, B. (2021, March). Predictors of burnout in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Healthcare (Vol. 9, No. 3, p. 304). MDPI.
Pérez-Fuentes, M. D. C., Molero Jurado, M. D. M., Martos Martínez, Á., & Gázquez Linares, J. J. (2019). Burnout and engagement: Personality profiles in nursing professionals. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(3), 286.
Salmela-Aro, K., Hietajärvi, L., & Lonka, K. (2019). Work burnout and engagement profiles among teachers. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 2254.
Kusurkar, R. A., van der Burgt, S. M., Isik, U., Mak-van der Vossen, M., Wilschut, J., Wouters, A., & Koster, A. S. (2021). Burnout and engagement among PhD students in medicine: the BEeP study. Perspectives on medical education, 10(2), 110-117.
Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template
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