C100 Biology

Question:

Write a report on exercise’s effects on the cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal systems, and respiratory system.

An objective assessment of the lymphatic system

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An evaluation of the types and contractions of muscle

These effects should be explained in detail in the report.

Learn about the human musculoskeletal and muscular system

Compare and contrast different bones within the human skull

Describe the characteristics of different types of joints and the movements possible for each type of synovial joint.

Identify two pairs and explain their function.

Explain the structure of smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles and how they are connected.

Understanding the respiratory system

Identify the basic anatomical structure of your respiratory system and how it relates to function.

Discuss the relationship between microscopic structure (alveolus) and its function

Analyse the ventilation changes at rest and after exercise to determine if they are related to homeostasis.

Understanding the circulatory system

Compare and contrast the blood vessels of mammals and explain double circulation.

Analyze the structure and function of the mammalian heart.

Describe the composition and function of blood cells.

Answer:

Introduction

Exercise can have a variety of biological effects on the body.

These include changes in the muscles and lungs, heart, brains, joints, bones, and brains.

ATP is required by the muscles for contraction and relaxation.

The body makes more ATP by increasing oxygen demand, which leads to increased breathing and an increase in blood pumping (Rivera Brown & Frontera 2012).

Exercise increases oxygen requirements. The muscles are able to use more oxygen, which means the respiratory rate and speed of the lungs increase.

In order to provide more blood to muscles, the heart beat also increases.

Exercise can also increase blood flow, which helps the brain function better.

Exercising stimulates the growth and development of brain cells, which in turn aids in memory and learning (Thomas und anderen).

Exercises can also be helpful in maintaining healthy bones.

This report gives an overview of each system and then discusses the effects of exercising on each.

Musculoskeletal system

The musculoskeletal structure provides support, form and movement for the entire body.

It includes bones, muscles, joints and connective tissues that bind the tissues and organs together.

Bones of The Human Skeleton

The human skeleton has many different types of bones. These include the long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid, and sutural.

The long bones include the radius, tibias, fibulas, ulnas, humerus, and femur.

Long bones are made up of a shift that has varying numbers of extremities. They are also curved which contributes to their mechanical strength.

These short bones include scaphoid bone, hamate bone, lunate bones and cuboid bone.

Cube-shaped short bone’s function is to provide stability, support and minimal movement.

The flat bones are made up of the cranialbones (frontal, parietal and sternal bones), sternums, ribs and scapulae.

The flat bones are thin, and offer protection to soft tissues beneath or enclosed by them.

The irregular bones include the atlas, and axis bone, hyoid sphenoid zygomatic and any other facial bones.

The irregular bones have no definite form and are responsible for mechanical support.

The patella makes up the sesamoid bones.

They are formed in tendons which are subject to tension, friction, stress and physical strain.

The sutural bone is small and can be found in the sutural joint between the bones of your cranium (Hillson 2016,).

Characteristics of Joints

The three main types are synovial, cartilaginous and fibrous joints.

The fibrous joint are synarthrodial and immovable.

They are connected by dense connective tissues, most notably collagen.

They are free from cavities.

They come in three varieties: sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.

The cartilaginous joints connect the bones to each other by using cartilage.

They can be semi-moveable and come in two types, synchondroses (or symphyses).

The synovial joint can move freely.

The synovial joint have a synovial cap, synovial membrane responsible for secreting the synovial liquid and the hyaline, which protects the ends the articulating bone (Sekiya, et al.

The synovial joints include the pivot, ball, socket, saddle, condyloid, and gliding.

The hinge joints (elbow, knee), can be moved in various ways. Those of the pivot joints are rotation. Those of the ball joints (shoulder and hip) are flexion, expansion, adduction and abduction.

The movements for the saddle (thumb), and condyloid joint (wrist), are flexion and extension, adduction and abduction.

The intercarpal joints (gliding) have gliding movements (Sokoloff, 2014).

Functions of Skeletal Muscles Pairs

There are two types of skeletal muscle pairs: an agonist or antagonist.

An antagonist acts oppositely to the agonist.

One pair are the triceps brachii (biceps) and the triceps brachii (triceps). They are located in the anterior, posterior and middle of the arm.

The triceps Brachii extends the forearm, while the brachii flexes the biceps.

The quadriceps fasciis and hamstrings make up another pair.

The hamstrings have 3 muscles in the posterior thigh compartment. The quadriceps foemoris has 4 muscles in its anterior thigh compartment.

The hamstring is contracted, and the quadriceps fimoris extends the legs (Jarmey und Sharkey 2016).

Smooth Muscles, Cardiac, Skeletal

The skeletal muscles are responsible for voluntary movement.

They come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and fiber arrangements.

Skeletal muscle is made up of a large number of muscle fibres that are wrapped in connective tissue.

Epimysium refers to the connective tissue sheath.

Fascia refers to the connective tissues that is not part of the epimysium.

Perimysium surrounds fasciculus (the bundle of muscle fibers).

Endomysium covers every muscle cell.

A single muscle cell, the skeletal muscles fiber, is cylindrical.

The connective tissues offer protection and support from forces of contraction.

It is made up of blood vessels, nerves and other structures that aid in contraction (Frontera und Ochala 2015).

The heart’s muscle tissue, also known as myocardium or cardiac muscles, is one part.

It is made up of layers of myocardium that are located between the epicardium (endocardium) and epicardium.

The endocardium lines and protects the valves and cardiac chambers.

Epicardium surrounds and protects the heart.

Myocardium is made up of cardiomyocytes.

The contractions of the cardiac muscles are necessary to draw blood out of the heart. They then relax called diastole.

The atria contract in order to push blood to the ventricles while the ventricles contract to push blood out of the body (Canale Campbell and Smolich 2012).

Smooth muscles can perform involuntary movements.

They don’t have striated fibers, and their fibers are very small and tapered.

Smooth muscle fibers contain a nucleus at their central position.

Constrictions of surrounding vessels are caused by smooth muscle contractions.

This is a part the gastrointestinal system.

It is also responsible for fluid movements throughout the body and elimination (Campbell and Campbell 2012).

Exercise Effects on Musculoskeletal System

Exercise has a positive impact on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems.

It increases lean muscle mass which leads to improvements in energy metabolism and posture. Also, it supports the entire body and maintains bone density, balance, and coordination.

It improves joint mobility and metabolic rates.

Joint motions are made easier by increased synovial fluid secretion.

Exercise improves metabolic activity and helps to burn calories and gain lean body mass (Vincent Raiser, Vincent 2012).

Figure 1: The effects of exercise on the muscular and skeletal systems

Source: Pedersen, Febbraio (2012)

Respiratory System

The respiratory system, which is complex and helps in exhalation and inhalation for respiratory gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen, is complex.

Anatomy and function

The respiratory system includes biological structures, such as the nose and nasal cavity and mouth, pharynx and larynx.

The nose protects and supports the nasal cavity.

The harmful agents in the air are caught by the mucous membranes.

This involves warming the air outside before it enters the respiratory system. The warm air then returns to the nasal cavity at exhalation.

The mouth functions as an alternative and supplement to the nasal air.

The pharynx includes the nasopharynx oropharynx as well as the laryngopharynx.

It is a bridge between the nasal cavity and the larynx, esophagus, or nasal cavity.

The epiglottis diverts air from the laryngopharynx into the larynx.

The larynx links the laryngopharynx with the trachea.

The larynx is composed of the vocal folds, thyroid cartilage, cricoids cartilage, as well as the epiglottis and thyroid.

These cartilages protect and support the vocal folds, and the larynx.

Vocal folds play a vital role in sound development.

The trachea is composed of hyaline ring cartilage rings. This keeps the trachea free for air intake.

The trachea is open at the end and faces the esophagus. This allows food to pass through.

The trachea links the larynx with the bronchi and filters any air that enters your lungs.

The epithelium filters harmful particles.

The primary bronchi is located in the lower part of the trachea.

In the lungs, they split into smaller bronchi.

Secondary bronchi are responsible for carrying air into the lungs. They then separate into the tertiary and tertiary.

The tertiary, or secondary, bronchi divide into bronchioles.

They regulate air flow and trap harmful contaminants.

Alveoli are a series of sacs that make up the lungs.

The exchange of respiratory gases in the air can occur with the blood flowing through the capillaries.

The muscles surrounding the lungs aid in continuous inhalation/exhalation (Ionescu, 2013).

Structure of Alveoli and Its Function

There are many microscopic branches in the lungs called respiratory bronchioles.

These are then connected to the alveolar conduits.

Alveolar sacs at the ends of the alveolar tubes contain 20-30 alveoli. They are between 200 and 300 micrometers in size.

The alveolar membranes, which are one cell thick, are in close contact with the capillaries.

Because of their large surface area, the alveoli have a high ability to diffuse gases through the walls.

The oxygen in the inhaled oxygen is released through the walls and capillaries to red blood cells. These cells then carry oxygen to the tissues.

The body returns carbon dioxide to the alveoli. This oxygen then diffuses through the respiratory membranes into the space for exhalation (Lopez Rodriguez and Perez Gil 2014).

Figure 2: The lungs and the alveoli

Exercise and Ventilation: The Effects on Homeostasis

At rest, ventilation is between 5-6 liters/minute and increases to 100 liters/minute when exercised.

With increasing exercise intensity, ventilation rates increase proportionally.

With increasing exercise intensity, oxygen consumption rates also rise.

Resting oxygen consumption for a healthy young man is 250 ml/minute. However, high endurance training can increase oxygen consumption to as high as 5000 ml/minute.

Increased respiratory rate and tidal volumes are responsible for pulmonary ventilation. It creates a balance of the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide.

At the beginning of exercise, ventilation increases abruptly. Then it follows by gradual increases.

Exercise can increase energy consumption in muscles, activate energy generating reactions and help to maintain homeostasis.

An increased heart beat helps maintain a balanced oxygen level in the body.

The body heat produced by exercise is important in maintaining a healthy temperature. Sweating helps remove heat (Lekeux Art & Hodgson, 2013).

Cardiovascular System and Circulatory System

Types of blood vessels

Three types of blood vessels make up the human body.

These are the arteries and veins as well as the capillaries.

The arteries transport blood away from the heart.

The arteries are divided into arterioles that then split to form capillaries.

The flow of blood is stopped by frictional resistance from the inner walls of the arteries.

The middle layer is stretched at heart beats and the outer layer acts to cover it.

The elastic stretch and recoil keep the pressure constant.

The blood returns to the heart via the veins.

The systemic veins carry deoxygenated water.

Superior and inferior venacava carry blood from the body to its destination at the heart.

The inner layer of the vein is called tunica intima and the outer layer is tunica adventitia.

Due to their large surface, blood flow through veins is slower than through arteries.

The capillaries are small blood vessels.

Capillaries allow for exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes between the bloodstream and the body’s tissues.

Double circulation is the presence two loops. One loop transports oxygenated blood while the other loop transports deoxygenated blood (Abramson, 2013).

Structure Of The Heart

The heart regulates blood flow and controls the circulatory system.

The heart is made up of a dark red muscular on the outside. It is attached to the venacava and pulmonary artery as well as the vein and the Aorta.

The heart’s internal portion consists of the ventricles as well as the atria.

The semilunar and atrioventricular valves divide the ventricles from their atria, while the semilunar vales separate them from the pulmonary veins and the aorta.

Glass, Hunter, McCulloch 2012: Thinner atrial walls, thicker ventricular walls

The cardiac cycle includes the diastole, the atrial andventricular systoles.

The diastole is when the heart fills with blood.

The blood flows through the venacava pulmonary veins and the ventricles to the atria.

The atrial rhythm causes the atria to contract and pump more blood to the ventricles.

The ventricles contract during the ventricular rhythm. Blood keeps the valves closed, thus preventing blood from reaching the atria.

The semilunar vales open when pressure increases. This forces blood out of the heart into the arteries.

The semilunar valves close and the atrioventricular opens when the pressure drops.

The electrical system of your heart produces signals that allow the heart to beat.

This heartbeat is responsible for pumping blood throughout the entire body.

The electrical system comprises the His-purkinje and atrioventricular nosdes, as well as the sinoatrial node.

The electrical signals cause contraction and relaxation in the heart chambers.

This is essential for the cardiac cycle.

Composition Of Blood and Related Functions

Blood is composed of plasma, platelets and red and white blood cell.

The red blood cell transports oxygen to the body and carbon dioxide into the lungs. The white blood cells aid in fighting infection and are part the immune system. Platelets are essential for clotting.

The lymphatic system includes the lymph fluid, which contains white blood cells. These white blood cells help fight infection and remove unwanted toxins.

Cardiovascular System Effects from Exercise

Exercise has a number of effects on the cardiovascular system. It increases blood circulation, lowers resting heart rate, improves blood flow and decreases stress hormones.

Figure 3: The effects of exercise on the cardiovascular systems

Source: Golbidi, Laher 2012

Conclusion

This report examines the impact of exercise on the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and musculoskeletal systems.

Exercise can have a positive impact on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It can increase blood flow, blood supply, muscle size, coordination, blood supply, and blood flow.

Exercise has a number of effects on the respiratory system. It can increase breathing rates, oxygen uptake and blood supply, improve functional and vital capacities, and cause exhalation of carbon dioxide.

The cardiovascular system is affected by exercise. This includes an increase in heart rate and blood circulation.

For proper functioning of the body, it is important to exercise.

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