GENEGENO02 Genetics And Genomics

Question:

Topic

DNA profiling: Paternity testing and breeding of captive endangered species. Crime scenes.

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Task

Prepare a report about genetic engineering.

The following sections will contain the report.

Let’s give a brief overview of the particular case relating to genetic engineering.

Use this example to raise a pertinent social issue.

Histories and Background

Give details about the background or history of the development of this example.

Scientists use the same method

Describe the science used in the laboratory’s technology.

Discussion of a relevant social problem

Discuss a social problem that is related to genetic engineering.

Discuss the opposing points of view and not just one.

Answer:

Introduction

Two X chromosomes make up human female germ cells. One chromosome makes up the human male.

If fertilization takes place via X sperm, it results in female offspring. However, fertilization using Y-bearing sperm (or X-deficient sperm) results in make offspring.

This ability of male sperm to determine the sex of offspring, and the presence of unique DNA chromosomes (Bachtrog 2012) led to the foundation for paternal screening (Bachtrog 2013).

With the aid of DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting, parental testing via Ychromosome can be done.

It is possible for a woman using parental testing to identify the father of a child. However, this is not a way to assume financial responsibility for the child.

A woman may seek to avoid sharing custody of a child with her ex-husband, even though she knows that he is not the father. DNA profiling in paternal testing can help.

Adopted children may sometimes vouch to the identity of their biological father/mother. Then again, the importance DNA profiling in paternal tests is considered (Buckleton et. al.

Background

The majority of violent crimes are committed in the male genital area.

To determine who is responsible, only the sperm is needed.

Because Ychromosomes are the primary determinant for maleness, the sperm is used as the basis of paternal testing using DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling (Toom 2012).

About the Ychromosome

The human X chromosome was long known to be genetically empty.

Later it was found that Y chromosomes contained fewer genes than the x chromosome.

The pseudoautosomal region (PARs), at the two extreme ends, of the Z-chromosome share homology. The remaining 95% does not share homology and is known as the non-recombining region (NRY), or the male-specific region of the J (MSY).

The MSY is divided into two parts: heterochromatic (lacking genes) and euchromatic (gene rich).

In the euchromatic zone, near the PAR, lies the sex determining area of Y.

This euchromatin or gene rich area of the Y chromosome is where DNA profiling takes place in paternal testing (Jangravi et.al 2012).

The intergenic section of DNA that makes up the bulk of the gene is made up of a combination of unique and repetitive sequences. They are also known as satellite.

These satellites are an invaluable tool in genetic engineering.

The Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs), is used in paternity testing.

VNTRs refer to the variations in the repetition rate of the microsatellites. This is what gives rise to the basic DNA fingerprinting for paternal testing. (Poznik and al.

Alec Jeffreys et. al. discovered DNA fingerprinting.

Alec Jeffreys and his colleagues discovered DNA fingerprinting technology in 1985. They were asked to examine a case involving burglary and rape.

DNA fingerprinting can be done simultaneously with random probes and site-specific probes.

Jeffrey used multilocus probes, which were repeated in tandem in the intron myoglobin gene. (Roewer, 2013).

Scientists use this method

DNA fingerprinting is one of the most commonly used methods for parent testing.

Researchers use micro-satellites and short tandem repeats (STRs), to probe the case.

The DNA is taken from the gene-rich region of the Ychromosome.

The isolated DNA was amplified by PCRs using STRs (strats) as probes. These probes are specific for the gene rich or euchromatin regions of the Y chromosome.

After amplifying DNA, restriction digestion is performed (a process called Restriction fragment long polymorphism, or RFLP).

The digested DNA pieces are then subjected for agarose gel electrophoresis.

The DNa is separated according to their charge/mass.

Under the charge of an electric field, the smallest DNA moves faster.

Southern blot is used to hybridize the isolated DNA.

The DNA is extracted from the agarose gel with a nylon membrane. It is then subjected to the charging electric field.

The running buffer uses chemicals that separate double-stranded DNA into single-stranded DNA.

The UV light can crosslink single strandedDNA.

Once the radio-labeled probe is bound with single stranded DNA amplified DNA, then an Xray film is placed on top of the nylon gel to detect patterns in radio activity.

DNA fingerprinting refers to the visible pattern in a radio station’s radio band.

To detect the similarities, the pattern of the radio band is compared to the father.

In recent years, however, the after-product of the PCR is subjected a restriction digestion, and the digested DNA fragments then are subjected a sequencing.

In order to detect homology, the sequencing patterns of the son and suspected father are compared (Dolf 2013,

Social Issue

Many social issues are associated with parental DNA profiling.

Opposing Views

The genetic profiling of parents for financial purposes can have many risks.

Sometimes, people may feel upset, angry or anxious about their results.

Because genetic testing may reveal unfavorable information about other family members, it can create tension in the family.

Genetic discrimination may also be possible in insurance and employment sectors.

Family law specialists believe that while the test provides clarity, it can also lead to uncharted emotional terrain.

The demand for a paternity check can be very detrimental to parents who have adopted children.

The child’s desire to hunt his biological father may cause harm to legal parents who have dedicated their hearts and soul to raising the child.

However, a man may be more inclined to feel disgust at the idea of having to take financial responsibility for the child’s care and not discover that the child he is caring for is his biological child (Milunsky 2012).

The paternity test using DNA profiling can also produce false positive results.

The small tandem repeat (STR), or small nuclear polymorphism, (SNP), is unique to each person. Random STRs can be used as probe to create false positive results (Pena (2013); Lu et.al.

Supporting views

Women who fight for the financial rights and support of their children’s biological fathers through DNA profiling have found that paternal testing can be extremely beneficial.

Most of these women are rape victim in the majority of caes.

Of course, the person found guilty will often claim that he does not bear the children’s chromosomes.

With the introduction of DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling for paternal testing, it is now easier to determine the true biological father and get the rights of the children in society.

Alrc.gov.au 2017: DNA profiling has been shown to be very useful in identifying the convicts involved in a rape investigation.

However, orphaned children may opt to use DNA fingerprinting to locate their biological father. This will allow them to claim their family rights within the society.

The same principle applies to the children who were born through artificial reproduction or in vitro fertilization (Ravelingien, Pennings 2013,).

You can also view other supporting views here

Men have the right to prove or deny their paternity.

Children have the right to know their biological parents

Refer to

Y chromosome Evolution: Emerging insights into processes of Y chromosome Degeneration.

Nature reviews.

Taylor, D.

Interpretation of forensic DNA evidence.

CRC press.

Bodies of science & law: Forensic DNA profiling and biological bodies.

Journal of Law and Society, 39(1). pp. 150-166.

A new look at the male-specific regions of the human Human Y Chromosome.

Journal of proteome and genome research 12(1): pp.6-22.

Bustamante C.D.

Sequencing Y Chromomes helps to resolve discrepancies in time to common ancestor of males and females.

DNA fingerprinting: approaches, applications (Vol.

Genetics and the Law.

Springer Science & Business Media.

State of DNA fingerprinting.

Lu, D.. Liu Q. Wu, W. and Zhao H.

Mutation analysis for 24 short tandem repeats among the Chinese Han population.

International journal for legal medicine, 126(2) pp.331-335.

Ravelingien A., and Pennings G. (2013).

The right to find out your genetic parents: From open identification gamete donation to routine paternity screening.

The American Journal of Bioethics 13, pp.33-41.

Social consequences of parentage-testing

Mutation analysis for 24 short tandem repeats among the Chinese Han population.

International journal for legal medicine, 126(2) pp.331-335.