MICRB 201 Introductory Microbiology

Question:

This performance assessment will require you to use an agar plate that has an unknown bacteria on it.

Each plate will be marked with a number that corresponds the one of eight possible bacteria.

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The task is to identify the bacteria on the plate using the laboratory techniques we used in this semester (see the separation diagram below).

You can use the resources available in lab (stains microscopes and broths ect.

Your instructor, the lab manual, and your instructor.

You will be working alone on this project.

You will write a two-part paper once you have identified the species name and genus of unknown bacteria.

Summarize the laboratory process used to identify an unidentified bacterial sample

2.)

Answer:

I chose agar number 17 as my unknown ID performance evaluation task.

The first step in identifying the bacteria that I have was to create a streak plate from the bacteria on my agar plate.

To perform additional identification tests, I heated and dried the bacteria on a slide.

To determine drug therapy and identification, the gram stain is one the most common differential tests on a bacterial specimen.

The results of the Gram stain showed that the bacteria were gram positive because it retained its deep purple colour. (If the bacteria were pinkish-red, it would have become gram negative). Morphology was cocci because the bacteria’s round shape.

Because the bacteria were grampositive, but not gramnegative, I was able to exclude Pseudomonas, Klebesiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris as they are all considered gramnegative.

Additionally, I was able exclude Bacillus cereas Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Bacillus cereas and Listeria monocytogenes. This was due to the fact that their bacteria is gram-positive and mine was gram positive coccus.

I was now ready for the catalase test.

My bacterium tested positive for catalase because it produced bubbles.

The catalase results allowed me to exclude Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is gram positive cocci and catalase-negative.

MRSA Disease – General Description

MRSA is a contagious illness caused by Staphylococcus bacteria.

It is extremely resistant to antibiotics which makes it challenging to treat.

Although bacteria is found in the nose and skin, they do not cause any harm by nature (Shrestha Fraser & Gordon 2017).

MRSA is caused when bacteria multiply uncontrollably.

MRSA can be transmitted by sharing clothes, sheets, towels and other items with MRSA-infected people.

MRSA is also transmitted to others by touching them or surfaces with MRSA (Shrestha Fraser & Gordon 2017, 2017).

People with open wounds and feeding tubes can easily transmit the disease to others.

MRSA Incubation Period

MRSA is a type of staph disease. This means that there should be bacteria and mucous fluids already present in the individual’s body.

The exact time it takes for the disease to develop is not known.

If the infections are passed from one person to another through open wounds and damaged mucous membranes (Lee Pettitt & Dancer (2018)), the incubation time is typically between the first and tenth days.

MRSA Symptoms.

Without a screening test, the disease does not present any serious symptoms.

MRSA can cause skin reddening, swelling, pus production, pain, and other symptoms.

The patient can experience dizziness and aching as well confusion, chills, and nausea if the MRSA disease persists.

Pathogenicity of the Bacteria

Structural Defences Against Phagocytosis

The bacteria’s DNA is taken from the dead genome. This allows for mutations to occur all the while ensuring that the bacteria survives.

A single nucleotide can change the gene to confer resistance against the microorganism. (Kon & RAI, n.d.).

Because they are naturally found in large numbers, their survival rates from being consumed by the white blood cell can be increased.

Finally, their outer cells have a bilayer which slows down phagocytosis.

Bacteria can inhibit enzymes within the body.

This mechanism utilizes various means to modify the antibacterial structural compound (Kon & Rai n.d.

Hydrolysis is performed on the enzymes, and also the ability to modify penicillin-binding protein (PBP) in the host.

Toxins

As the outer membrane supports it, bacteria also produces efflux pumps. This makes them a complex defense mechanism.

This minimizes toxin penetration, allowing for more dominance and replications (Kon & Rai n.d.).

Antibiotic resistance

Bilayer lipids make up the membrane that surrounds the Gram-negative bacteria.

This reduces the ability of hydrophilic antibiotics to pass through (Kon & Rai n.d.).

The size of the drug and its different forms are other factors that can limit its passage to bacteria.

MRSA epidemiology

Shrestha Fraser and Gordon (2017) have found that MRSA is a common infection in between ten and thirty percent of 100000 people-years.

MRSA infections are also affected heavily by age. Young adults have high rates of MRSA infections, while older individuals experience a slower rise. Diabetic people are more at risk for MRSA infections (Lee Pettitt & Dancer 2018).

Mortality

Shrestha Fraser and Gordon (2016) found that people over 60 years old had the highest death rates from the disease. However, there were few records of younger age.

This was followed up by 1104 deaths containing AIDS in blacks, men and women.

MRSA is found in high numbers among people with AIDS, and diabetics.

MRSA is also prevalent in body parts, including the eyes, armpits, buttocks, and armpits.

Lee, Pettitt & Dancer (2018) demonstrate that burn victims are responsible for high morbidity rates.

MRSA: Treatment, Diagnosis, and Prevention

Doctors can diagnose the disease by performing a test on the bacteria’s nasal secretion, or on a sample of tissue. (Lee, Pettitt & Dagger, 2018).

The test sample is sent to the laboratory where it will be placed in a dish containing nutrients. It will be monitored for 48 hours.

After the test is complete, MRSA has to be removed.

MRSA is treated by antibiotics.

It may require injections or tablets which may take a few days to complete.

The person may need to be in a private room or share the space with others to prevent spreading the disease.

MRSA can still be prevented, no matter where the patient is located.

To prevent the spread of MRSA, hand washing should be done before and after eating (Lee Pettitt & Dancer 2018).

You should also be aware of the instructions for wound care and cleaning devices that could cause infection like urinary catheters.

Unclean facilities should be reported to hospital staff without fear.

MRSA can be prevented by taking all necessary treatment and prevention measures. This will result in low rates and lower morbidity rates across different regions.

Also, prevention is always better than treatment.

Refer to

Kon, K., und Rai, M. Antibiotic resistance.

An exploratory study to determine the relative effects of environmental contamination on MRSA incidence in surgical wards.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases., 4(suppl_1). S638-S639.